Research Papers

Design and Functional Testing of a Novel Blood Pulse Wave Velocity Sensor

[+] Author and Article Information
Marit H. N. van Velzen

Department of Anesthesiology,
Laboratory of Experimental Anesthesiology,
Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam,
's-Gravendijkwal 230,
Rotterdam 3015 CE, The Netherlands
e-mail: m.h.n.vanvelzen@tudelft.nl

Arjo J. Loeve

Department of Biomechanical Engineering,
Faculty 3mE,
Delft University of Technology,
Mekelweg 2,
Delft 2628 CD, The Netherlands
e-mail: a.j.loeve@tudelft.nl

Egbert G. Mik

Department of Anesthesiology,
Laboratory of Experimental Anesthesiology,
Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam,
's-Gravendijkwal 230,
Rotterdam 3015 CE, The Netherlands
e-mail: e.mik@erasmusmc.nl

Sjoerd P. Niehof

Department of Anesthesiology,
Laboratory of Experimental Anesthesiology,
Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam,
's-Gravendijkwal 230,
Rotterdam 3015 CE, The Netherlands
e-mail: s.niehof@erasmusmc.nl

1Corresponding author.

2Marit H. N. van Velzen and Arjo J. Loeve contributed equally to this work.

Manuscript received July 13, 2017; final manuscript received September 29, 2017; published online November 22, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Rafael V. Davalos.

J. Med. Devices 12(1), 011006 (Nov 22, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: MED-17-1267; doi: 10.1115/1.4038308 History: Received July 13, 2017; Revised September 29, 2017

The multiphotodiode array (MPA) is a novel transmission photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor to measure pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the finger. To validate the MPA, a setup was built to generate a red laser dot traveling over the MPA with known and constant scanning velocities. These scanning velocities were chosen to include speeds at least twice as high as those found in the normal range of PWV in healthy populations and were set at 12.9, 25.8, 36, or 46.7 m/s. The aim of this study was to verify the functionality of the MPA: performing local noninvasive PWV measurements. To illustrate the applicability of the MPA in clinical practice, an in vivo pilot study was conducted using the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) technique. The in vitro accuracy of the MPA was ±0.2%, 0.3%, 0.5%, and 0.6% at the applied scanning velocities. The MPA can measure PWVs with a maximum deviation of 3.0%. The in vivo pilot study showed a PWV before the FMD of 1.1±0.2 m/s. These results suggest that this novel MPA can reliably and accurately measure PWV within clinically relevant ranges and even well beyond.

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Fig. 4

Example of light pulse detection with the MPA using four photodiodes

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Fig. 3

Schematic overview of the validation setup

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Fig. 2

Overview of the validation setup

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Fig. 1

Schematic overview of the MPA and calculation of the PWV

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Fig. 5

Boxplot showing the relative difference between the applied scanning velocities and the pulse velocities measured with the MPA (for two and four photodiodes)

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Fig. 6

Pulse wave amplitude and PWV before and after FMD



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