The rat tail intervertebral disc has emerged as an important model to examine the mechanisms for mechanically induced degeneration and remodeling. Previous methods used to apply high precision axial compressive loading to a rat tail intervertebral disc in vivo either required anesthesia, or the permanent mounting of a loading device to the animal, and were not well described in the literature. Therefore, a new device to apply compressive loading to the rat tail intervertebral disc was developed and validated. The rat tail compressive loading system utilized a pneumatically driven device weighing , and was capable of delivering a sinusoidal or square waveform at frequencies up to . The system improved on previous methods in its modular construction, relative ease of fabrication, compatibility with existing tail model technology and overall cost effectiveness. The removable system eliminated the need for anesthesia and through a modular, cost effective, design allowed for the simultaneous loading of multiple animals. This system expanded the ability to accurately, ethically, and efficiently apply dynamic compressive loads to the rat tail intervertebral disc for extended periods of time in order to address questions related to disc mechanobiology.