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RESEARCH PAPERS

Graphical Rendering of Localized Lumps for MIS Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Saeed Sokhanvar1

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Boulevard West, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8, Canadas̱sokhan@alcor.concordia.ca

Mohammadreza Ramezanifard, Javad Dargahi, Muthukumaran Packirisamy

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Boulevard West, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8, Canada

1

Corresponding author.

J. Med. Devices 1(3), 217-224 (Aug 08, 2007) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2779260 History: Received March 09, 2007; Revised August 08, 2007

Minimally invasive sugery (MIS) has increasingly been used in different surgical routines despite having significant shortcomings such as a lack of tactile feedback. Restoring this missing tactile information, particularly the information gained through tissue palpation, would be a significant enhancement to MIS capabilities. Tissue palpation is particularly important and commonly used in locating embedded lumps. The present study is inspired by this major limitation of the MIS procedure and is aimed at developing a system to reconstruct the lost palpation capability of surgeons in an effective way. By collecting necessary information on the size and location of hidden features using MIS graspers equipped with tactile sensors, the information can be processed and graphically rendered to the surgeon. Therefore, using the proposed system, surgeons can identify the presence or absence, location, and approximate size of hidden lumps simply by grasping the target organ with a smart endoscopic grasper. The results of the conducted experiments on the prototyped MIS graspers represented by graphical images are compared with those of the finite element models.

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Figures

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Figure 1

Components of the proposed system

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Figure 2

A view of the grasper with one active jaw equipped with an array of the seven sensing elements

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Figure 3

Locating the lump in one direction and its graphical rendering

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Figure 4

The second design of the grasper in which both upper and lower jaws are equipped with the sensing elements

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Figure 5

The flowchart of the algorithm implemented in LABVIEW and used for the graphical rendering

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Figure 6

The graphical rendering of the characterized lump in two dimensions; (a) a lump located in a soft material with the upper and lower sensor arrays; (b) 2D intensity graph associated with the sensor array outputs; (c) a 7×7 matrix showing the location of the lump; (d) a 60×100 matrix that gives better information on the location and size of the lump

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Figure 7

The relationship between grasped object and intensity matrix

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Figure 8

Photographs of the sensors under the test; (a) the sensor with one active jaw used for construction of one-dimension graphical images; (b) the sensor with two active jaws used for two-dimension graphical rendering of detected lumps

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Figure 9

Photograph of the experimental setup

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Figure 10

A view of the sectioned and meshed finite element model of soft object and the embedded lump

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Figure 11

The experimental and analytical results of four case studies

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Figure 12

The experimental and analytical results for two-dimensional localization. Each row illustrates the information of the studied case. In the right column, the dashed line represents the output voltages of the lower array of the sensors, while the solid line is associated with the upper jaw.

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