Technical Briefs

Characterization of Puncture Forces for Retinal Vein Cannulation

[+] Author and Article Information
Olgaç Ergeneman

 Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerlandoergeneman@ethz.ch

Juho Pokki, Vanda Počepcová, Bradley J. Nelson

 Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland

Heike Hall

 Cells and BioMaterials, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland

Jake J. Abbott

 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 84112

J. Med. Devices 5(4), 044504 (Nov 15, 2011) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005318 History: Received March 29, 2011; Revised September 02, 2011; Published November 15, 2011; Online November 15, 2011

For this study, we have collected puncture force data from the vasculature of the chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) of developing chicken embryos to examine forces required for retinal vein cannulation. The CAM vessels of a developing chicken embryo have been shown to be an appropriate model for human retinal veins. The effect of microneedle geometry and vessel size on puncture forces was investigated. The results of this work are important for researchers working on robotic vitreoretinal surgical systems.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Two types of microneedles were prepared: blunt and beveled. The outer diameter (OD) and bevel angle is shown in the image.

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Figure 2

Setup for puncture-force experiments. A microneedle is attached on a force sensor, which is mounted on a micromanipulator. The puncture events were observed using a microscope and images were captured by a camera. On the top left, a microneedle advancing toward a blood vessel is shown. The microneedle was mounted at 45° from the normal of the plane of the petri dish and was advanced in its axial direction. The petri dish was oriented to have the vessel axis perpendicular to the microneedle axis.

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Figure 3

Puncture force (F1) and the phases of the puncture-force experiment are shown. The compressive force on the sensor is shown as negative force. The steps in plot (a) are due to the movement of the stepper motor, and they are not seen in (b) because the magnitude of forces is higher.

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Figure 4

Histogram of magnitude of forces as percentages of all measurements. Vessels in 80–400 μm OD range were considered.

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Figure 5

Average puncture forces for 1-2 μm, 9–15 μm, 29–34 μm, 46–51 μm, and 70–73 μm tip OD for the blunt microneedles (306 individual punctures)

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Figure 6

Average puncture forces for 13–15 μm, 25 μm, 46–52 μm, and 68–69 μm tip OD for the beveled microneedles (153 individual punctures)

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Figure 7

Residual analysis for the regression model using the force data with blunt needles

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Figure 8

Residual analysis for the regression model using the force data with beveled needles




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