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Research Papers

Initial Design and Evaluation of a Pediatric Intra-Cardiac Camera System for Ventricular Septal Defects

[+] Author and Article Information
Mark E. Rentschler1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder; Department of Surgery (secondary appointment),  University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 427 UCB, 1111 Engineering Drive, Boulder, CO 80309-0427Mark.Rentschler@colorado.edu

Keir D. Hart

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  University of Colorado at Boulder, 427 UCB, 1111 Engineering Drive, Boulder, CO 80309-0427Keir.Hart@colorado.edu

Max B. Mitchell

Department of Surgery,  University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Director,Mechanical Circulatory Support Program, The Children’s Hospital Denver, 13123 E. 16th Ave. B200, Aurora, CO 80045Mitchell.Max@tchden.org

1

Corresponding author.

J. Med. Devices 6(1), 011001 (Mar 13, 2012) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005778 History: Received October 06, 2010; Revised November 19, 2011; Published March 12, 2012; Online March 13, 2012

The primary objective of this project is to design, fabricate, and test a small, integrated camera system for aiding in the visualization and surgical repair of certain types of ventricular septal defects (VSD), in pediatric patients. Currently, no purpose-designed commercial device to view VSDs from the left ventricle of the heart exists. The left ventricular perspective is ideal for obtaining an unobstructed view of the VSD. This VSD camera device would also provide a platform for passing a suture through the hole in the ventricular septum, with future work implementing additional tools capable of more advanced tasks. This camera device will help solve some of the major issues currently associated with cardiac imaging and surgical closure of VSDs in newborns and young children This paper examines the design development and preliminary evaluation of a proof of concept device. Included are preliminary results of image quality comparisons, design details of a pediatric-specific VSD camera device, and initial outcomes from in vitro testing.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Initial concept image of an intra-cardiac VSD camera system during surgical use

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Figure 2

CAD view of a conceptual design layout

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Figure 3

Imaging and electronic components of a conceptual device in the distal camera module

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Figure 4

Close-up view of the camera module with the Nitinol hoop deployed

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Figure 5

Prototype VSD camera version 1

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Figure 6

RS501A-68 PCB with integrated OV6920 imager

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Figure 7

Prototype VSD camera module in version 1, with hoop retracted in insertion configuration (top) and deployed (bottom)

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Figure 8

VSD camera version 2 prototyped handle

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Figure 9

VSD camera handle (version 2) with improved mechanical design using 2:1 geared thumbwheel for hoop deployment and modified housing and fingerwheel

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Figure 10

Sharpness/contrast (left) and color quality (right) test images used for camera comparisons

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Figure 11

Normalized values for video color quality comparison: hue, colorfulness, brightness, and contrast

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Figure 12

Modulated transfer function (MTF) illustrating video sharpness comparison of each camera system versus the benchmark image

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Figure 13

Latest VSD camera version

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Figure 14

Camera module close-up view of latest VSD camera

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Figure 15

VSD camera device in use during in vitro porcine heart testing. The heart is approximately 9 cm × 12 cm

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