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Research Papers

Computational Simulations of Vertebral Body for Optimal Instrumentation Design

[+] Author and Article Information
F. Casesnoves

 Computational Bioengineering Researcher, AMS, American Mathematical Society, SIAM-SIAG Research Activity, Group on Geometric Design, Reno, NVcasesnoves.research.emailbox@gmail.com

Extent mathematical details about all the formula development and optimization computing process can be found in a previous paper [24].

Lumbar vertebral endplates are not total and geometrically parallel. The divergence angles are small but exist (Fig. 7). This fact was also considered for the engineering design of the distractor blades.

J. Med. Devices 6(2), 021014 (May 24, 2012) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4006670 History: Received June 12, 2010; Accepted October 25, 2011; Published May 24, 2012; Online May 24, 2012

The engineering design of surgical instrumentation to exert forces and torques/moments on bones during operations constitutes a rather difficult task. This technical difficulty is caused mainly by the natural, pathological, and individual irregularities of the human bone morphologies and surfaces. Usually, mechanical forces are applied on determined parts of bone surfaces, so-called regions of interest (ROIs). We describe a computational method (CAD) to digitalize, simulate, and fit mathematically the anterior vertebral body morphometric. Based on experimental data from 17 cadaveric specimens, large sets of surface digital points were generated. Complete anterior vertebral body morphologies were visualized and analyzed with subroutines, which are initially used to select these natural ROIs. Subsequently, an optimized fitting model was implemented for the ROIs. 3D surface equations of the anterior vertebral body (L3, L4, L5, and S1) were determined. Statistics and determination coefficients which define the error boundaries and goodness of the model, were calculated and mathematically analyzed. A bioengineering application is the use of these equations for the industrial design of an innovative vertebral distractor. The device separates two adjacent vertebrae in parallel, and minimizes the force to carry out the surgical maneuver.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Principal objective(s) and method of the article

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Figure 2

(Special imaging software): a natural lumbar spine with vertebra and disk separations

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Figure 3

Two examples of selected ROIs and geometrical and anatomical resemblance

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Figure 4

The ROI selection and optimization method, right: simulated (right)-natural (left) ROI resemblance

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Figure 5

Intervertebral distractor with lateral view, footprint, and artificial disk. Shown are footprint view, correct placement, and retractors window.

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Figure 6

Diagram: spinal tools/diseases/deformities and implants related to optimal screws placement. Right: correct mounting angles and intervertebral ligaments model.

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Figure 7

Transversal surface curve section and sagittal 2D curve equations. Sagittal curves gradient lines and mathematical method (numerical data examples in Table 3).

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