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Technical Briefs

Measuring Luxation of Dental Implants In Vitro

[+] Author and Article Information
Horea T. Ilieş

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269ilies@engr.uconn.edu

Dennis Flanagan

 Windham Dental Group, Willimantic, CT 06226dffdds@charter.net

Matthew Raby, Richard Stevenson

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269

J. Med. Devices 2(1), 014501 (Mar 07, 2008) (4 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2889057 History: Received May 30, 2007; Revised January 02, 2008; Published March 07, 2008

Loading of dental implants immediately after placement is an important attribute for the patients receiving the implants, but may induce a failure in the osseointegration of the implant. Even though the loading required to induce such failures is currently unknown, it is estimated that the osseointegration may fail if an implant is luxated in bone by more than 50μm. Therefore, the ability to measure this loading can provide the practicing dentist with critical information in estimating the functional life of a newly placed implant. This paper discusses the design and fabrication of a cost-effective test setup for measuring the amount of horizontal force required to displace a nonosseointegrated implant, and presents the results of our pilot in vitro load measurements for dental implants mounted in a bovine mandible. Although the sample size of our measurements is not statistically significant, the initial data show that the amount of horizontal force required to displace a 4.3×13mm implant by 50μm is in the order of 150N, and therefore the implant may fail to osseointegrate for biting forces that are as low as 440N, which is about half of the typical biting force of an adult in the molar area. One implication of our study is that implants having smaller diameters may move and fail to osseointegrate for even lower biting forces. Furthermore, our work represents the first steps in developing appropriate metrics to correlate the measured biting force generated by a patient with his or her candidacy for immediate functional implant loading.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

A schematic representation of the final design used for testing (a). The bone is mounted in the dental stone that is rigidly attached to the displacement sensor seen in (b), which shows the final setup of the testing device for luxated implant measurements.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

(a) The upper and lower bounding forces for the applied horizontal force; (b) measured data used to generate the two bounding surfaces

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