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Research Papers

Fabrication and Characterization of a Balloon Actuator Array for Haptic Feedback in Robotic Surgery

[+] Author and Article Information
Chih-Hung King, Miguel Franco, Adrienne T. Higa

 Center for Advanced Surgical and Interventional Technology (CASIT), Los Angeles, CA 90095-7360; Biomedical Engineering IDP, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095

Martin O. Culjat, Erik Dutson

 Center for Advanced Surgical and Interventional Technology (CASIT), Los Angeles, CA 90095-7360; Department of Surgery, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095

James W. Bisley

 Center for Advanced Surgical and Interventional Technology (CASIT), Los Angeles, CA 90095-7360; Department of Neurobiology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095

Warren S. Grundfest

 Center for Advanced Surgical and Interventional Technology (CASIT), Los Angeles, CA 90095-7360; Biomedical Engineering IDP, and Department of Surgery, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095

J. Med. Devices 2(4), 041006 (Nov 19, 2008) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2996593 History: Received October 04, 2007; Revised August 25, 2008; Published November 19, 2008

Robot-assisted surgery is characterized by a total loss of haptic feedback, requiring surgeons to rely solely on visual cues. A pneumatically-driven balloon actuator array, suitable for mounting on robotic surgical master controls, has been developed to provide haptic feedback to surgeons. The actuator arrays consist of a molded polydimethylsiloxane substrate with cylindrical channels and a spin-coated silicone film that forms the array of balloons. Preliminary human perceptual studies have demonstrated that balloon diameters greater than 1.0mm may provide effective haptic feedback to the index finger. Before conducting further human perceptual tests, refinements of the fabrication process and performance data of the actuator are required. Balloons with diameters ranging between 1.5mm and 4.0mm were fabricated with film thicknesses of 200μm and 300μm. Inflation pressure versus balloon deflection tests and cyclic actuation tests were performed to characterize each balloon type. The results demonstrated a high linearity between inflation pressure and balloon deflection (R2>0.93) and negligible hysteresis effects between inflation and deflation over 100,000cycles. The studies indicated that 300μm films are optimal for 3.0mm and 4.0mm diameter balloons, and 200μm films are optimal for 1.5mm, 2.0mm, and 2.5mm diameter balloons. Due to its compact size and high performance, the described pneumatic actuator can provide sensory input that is otherwise unavailable during robotic surgery.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Aluminum mold for PDMS substrate

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Figure 2

Spin-coated SORTA Clear™ film on a 4in. wafer

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Figure 4

A balloon actuator array mounted on the master control of the da Vinci Surgical System. The actuator is in contact with the thumb and index finger, and the pneumatic tubing is fed upwards.

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Figure 6

Block diagram for the balloon deflection testing setup

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Figure 8

Balloon deflection versus inflation pressure for balloons with 300μm films. Six balloons were tested for each balloon diameter, in pressure increments of 1psi.

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Figure 9

Balloon deflection versus inflation pressure for balloons with 200μm films. Six balloons were tested for each balloon diameter, in pressure increments of 1psi.

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Figure 10

Cyclic actuation tests measuring inflation pressure versus balloon deflection for 200μm balloons over 10cycles

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Figure 11

Cyclic actuation tests measuring inflation pressure versus balloon deflection for 300μm balloons over 10cycles

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Figure 12

Cyclic actuation of a 3.0mm–300μm balloon at 500cycles, 1500cycles, 5000cycles, 10,000cycles, 15,000cycles, and 100,000cycles

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Figure 7

SORTA Clear™ film thickness profile on a 4in. wafer

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Figure 5

Block diagram of the control system

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Figure 3

A balloon actuator with a 3×2 array of 3mm silicone film balloons

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