Research Papers

Experimental Investigation and Neural Network Modeling for Force System of Retraction T-Spring for Orthodontic Treatment

[+] Author and Article Information
Bahaa I. Kazem

Department of Mechatronics Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Al-Jhadriah Campus, P.O. Box, Baghdad, Iraqbahaak@mit.edu

Nidahal Hussain Ghaib

College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Al-Jhadriah Campus, P.O. Box, Baghdad, Iraq

Noor M. Hasan Grama

College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Al-Jhadriah Campus, P.O. Box, Baghdad, Iraqnoor_garma@yahoo.com

J. Med. Devices 4(2), 021001 (Aug 04, 2010) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001387 History: Received May 11, 2009; Revised February 23, 2010; Published August 04, 2010; Online August 04, 2010

In this work three different cross section groups of stainless steel T-Spring, for tooth retraction, have been tested; each spring is activated for 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm, and the resultant force system is evaluated by using a testing apparatus. The results showed that when the cross section and activation distances are increased, the horizontal force and moment increased, while for the moment-to-force ratio, the lowest mean value was at the first activation distance of the first group, and the highest mean values were at the third activation distance of the third group. All three groups at all activation distance are insufficient to produce bodily tooth movement. T-springs of the (0.016×0.022in.) cross section and with frequent activation provide the best in force system production. An artificial neural network model was trained for simulation of the correlation between input parameters: spring cross section and activation distance, and the outputs spring force system. The network model has prediction ability with low mean error of force prediction (5.707%), and for the moment is (4.048%), and it can successfully reflect the results that were obtained experimentally with less costs and efforts.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Side view of the test apparatus (real view) (anterior metal stand (3a), posterior metal stand (3b), metal shaft (4), dial gauge adjustment screw (6), metal stage (7b), beta spring fixation assembly (7c), activating screw (7d), Lower brass piece (8a), and metal L-shaped arm (9b) dial gauge)

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Figure 2

Activation of the spring (no activation, 1 mm activation, 2 mm activation, 3 mm activation)

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Figure 3

The general two-dimensional x-y plane model

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Figure 4

Schematic diagram of the force system of the rotary arm of the testing apparatus (T-spring directed toward right side)

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Figure 5

NN T-spring force system prediction model

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Figure 6

Best linear fit of the force in the training set

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Figure 7

Best linear fit of the moment in the training set

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Figure 8

NN architecture used for the force system modeling




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