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Research Papers

A Robotic Biopsy Device for Capsule Endoscopy

[+] Author and Article Information
Kyoungchul Kong

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  Sogang University, Seoul, Korea 121-742kckong@sogang.ac.krDepartment of Mechanical Engineering,  Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15289kckong@sogang.ac.kr Samsung Engineering Co. Ltd. Seoul, Korea 134-090kckong@sogang.ac.kr

Sehyuk Yim

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  Sogang University, Seoul, Korea 121-742sehyuky@andrew.cmu.eduDepartment of Mechanical Engineering,  Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15289sehyuky@andrew.cmu.edu Samsung Engineering Co. Ltd. Seoul, Korea 134-090sehyuky@andrew.cmu.edu

Sunhee Choi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  Sogang University, Seoul, Korea 121-742sh0120.choi@samsung.comDepartment of Mechanical Engineering,  Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15289sh0120.choi@samsung.com Samsung Engineering Co. Ltd. Seoul, Korea 134-090sh0120.choi@samsung.com

Doyoung Jeon1

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  Sogang University, Seoul, Korea 121-742dyjeon@sogang.ac.kr

1

Corresponding author.

J. Med. Devices 6(3), 031004 (Jul 30, 2012) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007100 History: Received February 22, 2012; Revised May 14, 2012; Accepted May 29, 2012; Published July 30, 2012; Online July 30, 2012

This paper introduces a robotic biopsy device for capsule endoscopes. The proposed device consists of three modules for the complete process of biopsy, which includes monitoring the intestinal wall by a tissue monitoring module (TMM), aligning onto a polyp by an anchor module (AM), and sampling of the polyp tissue by a biopsy module (BM). The TMM utilizes a trigonal mirror as well as an on-board camera; since the TMM continuously takes images through lateral apertures, an operator such as a medical doctor is able to anchor the capsule endoscope onto the polyp and biopsy it with the visual feedback in real-time. When the operator finds a polyp using the TMM and the frontal camera of a capsule endoscope, then the AM is used to approach the polyp for biopsy. When the AM is in use, outriggers are extruded by shape-memory-alloy (SMA) springs, which results in the swelling of capsule endoscope body. In addition, an alignment module, which is a part of the AM, rotates the body of the capsule endoscope such that the biopsy razor can be aligned onto the polyp. Then, the BM excises a part of the polyp and seals the aperture, and the capsule endoscope continues exploring the intestine. The concept and working principles of the proposed device are introduced in this paper and are verified by a prototype that successfully integrates the three modules.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 2

Schematic of the proposed robotic biopsy device

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Figure 3

Biopsy procedure with the proposed device

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Figure 4

Tissue monitoring module

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Figure 5

A camera module used in the TMM

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Figure 6

Anchor module: (a) the anchor module with extruded outriggers, (b) the principle of anchoring, (c) the use of a silicone rubber band, and (d) an equivalent mechanical model

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Figure 7

Experimental results of the AM: (a) an idle state, (b) one outrigger extruded, (c) two outriggers extruded, and (d) three outriggers extruded

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Figure 8

Simulated extrusion height of an outrigger

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Figure 9

Experimental setup and results for characterization of AM

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Figure 10

Working principle of alignment mechanism

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Figure 11

Operation of alignment mechanism

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Figure 12

Biopsy procedure by the proposed BM: (a) aligned onto a target tissue, (b) adhered by AM, (c) trigger released, (d) tissue sample cut

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Figure 13

Fabricated parts of the BM: (a) PCB with a chip resistor, (b) a spiral spring, (c) an outer razor with three apertures, (d) an inner razor

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Figure 14

Measurement of the spring constant of a spiral spring: (a) an experimental setup, (b) the elastic torque with respect to the rotation angle

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Figure 15

Principle of the proposed trigger mechanism: (a) an idle state, (b) the trigger released

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Figure 16

Schematic of the trigger mechanism; a chip resistor is used as a trigger

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Figure 17

Experimental setup of in vitro experiment

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Figure 18

Alignment experiment

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Figure 19

Inserted tissues by the AM

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Figure 20

Rotation speed of the inner razor during biopsy process

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Figure 21

Biopsy experiment: (a) an experimental setup with an additional camera, (b) images while the biopsy process

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Figure 1

A prototype of robotic biopsy device for capsule endoscopy

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