Research Paper

Computer-Aided Engineering Approach for Parametric Investigation of Locked Plating Systems Design

[+] Author and Article Information
Joshua C. Arnone

Biodesign and Innovation Program,
Department of Surgery,
University of Missouri,
Columbia, MO 65212,
e-mail: arnonej@health.missouri.edu

A. Sherif El-Gizawy

Professor and Director
Industrial Technology Development Center,
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of Missouri,
Columbia, MO 65211,
e-mail: elgizawya@missouri.edu

Brett D. Crist

Associate Professor

Gregory J. Della Rocca

Associate Professor
Orthopaedic Surgery,
University of Missouri,
Columbia, MO 65212

Carol V. Ward

Pathology and Anatomical Sciences,
University of Missouri,
Columbia, MO 65212

Manuscript received October 20, 2010; final manuscript received April 17, 2013; published online June 24, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Vijay Goel.

J. Med. Devices 7(2), 021001 (Jun 24, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: MED-10-1093; doi: 10.1115/1.4024644 History: Received October 20, 2010; Revised April 17, 2013

The present paper presents an integrated computer-aided engineering (CAE) approach combining digital imaging, solid modeling, robust design methodology, and finite element analysis in order to conduct a parametric investigation of the design of locked plating systems. The present study allows for understanding the contributions of different design parameters on the biomechanics and reliability of these systems. Furthermore, the present approach will lead to exploration of optimum design parameters that will result in robust system performance. Three-dimensional surface models of cortical and cancellous femoral bone were derived via digital computed tomography (CT) image processing techniques and a medical imaging analysis program. A nine orthogonal array matrix simulation (L9) was conducted using finite element methods to study the effects of the various design parameters on plate performance. The introduced technique was demonstrated and experimentally verified on a case study using a Smith & Nephew PERI- LOC distal femur locking plate and a Synthes Less Invasive Stabilization System (LISS).

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Strauss, E. J., Schwarzkopf, R., Kummer, F., and Egol, K. A., 2008 “The Current Status of Locked Plating: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly,” J. Orthop. Trauma , 22(7), pp. 479–486. [CrossRef]
Gardner, M. J., Helfet, D. L., and Lorich, D. G., 2004, “Has Locked Plating Completely Replaced Conventional Plating?,” Am. J. Orthop., 33, pp. 439–446. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sommer, C., Gautier, E., Muller, M., Helfet, D., and Wagner, M., 2003, “First Clinical Results of the Locking Compression Plate (LCP),” Injury, 34, pp. S-B43–S-B45.
Hussain, P. B., and Mohammad, M., 2004, “Failure Analysis of Stainless Steel Femur Fixation Plate,” Med. J. Malaysia, 59, pp. 180–181. [PubMed]
Sanders, B. S., Bullington, A. B., and McGillivary, G. R., 2007, “Biomechanical Evaluation of Locked Plating in Proximal Humeral Fractures,” J. Shoulder Elbow Surg., 16, pp. 229–234. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gardner, M. J., Nork, S. E., Huber, P., and Krieg, J. C., 2009, “Stiffness Modulation of Locking Plate Constructs Using Near Cortical Slotted Holes: A Preliminary Study,” J. Orthop. Trauma, 23, pp. 281–287. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ratcliff, J. R., Werner, F. W., and Green, J. K., 2007, “Medial Buttress Versus Lateral Locked Plating in a Cadaver Medial Tibial Fracture Model,” J. Orthop. Trauma, 21, pp. 444–448. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gardner, M. J., Brophy, R. H., and Campbell, D., 2005, “The Mechanical Behavior of Locking Compression Plates Compared With Dynamic Compression Plates in a Cadaver Radius Model,” J. Orthop. Trauma, 19, pp. 597–603. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Stoffel, K., Dieter, U., and Stachowiak, G., 2003, “Biomechanical Testing of the LCP—How Can Stability in Locked Internal Fixators be Controlled?,” Injury, 34, pp. B11–B19. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gardner, M. J., Griffith, M. H., and Demetrakopoulos, D., 2006, “Hybrid Locked Plating of Osteoporotic Fractures of the Humerus,” J. Bone Joint Surg., 88, pp. 1962–1967. [CrossRef]
Arnone, J. C., 2011, “A Comprehensive Simulation-Based Methodology for the Design and Optimization of Orthopaedic Internal Fixation Implants,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.
Smith & Nephew, 2005, “Smith & Nephew PERI-LOC Periarticular Locked Plating System—Surgical Technique,” http://www.smith-nephew.com/global/assets/pdf/temp/targeter_systems_overview_(copy-1).pdf
Dassault Systèmes, 2010, abaqus FEA, Dassault Systèmes, Providence, RI.
ASMInternational Handbook Committee, 1990, Metals Handbook, 10th ed., Vol. 1, ASM International, Materials Park, OH.
Sumner, D. R., and Galante, J. O., 1991, “Determinants of Stress Shielding,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 274, pp. 202–212.
Cowin, S. C., 2001, Bone Mechanics Handbook, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 10–9 and 35–10.
Dee, R., 1997, Principals of Orthopaedic Practice, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 26–27.
Invibio Biomaterial Solutions, www.invibio.com
Scholes, S. C., and Unsworth, A., 2006, “Investigating the Potential of Implantable Grade PEEK as a Bearing Material Against Various Counterfaces,” 20th European Society for Biomaterials Conference, Nantes, France.
Massey, L. K., 2005, Effects of Sterilization Methods on Plastics and Elastomers: The Definitive User's Guide and Databook, 2nd ed., William Andrew Publishing/Plastics Design Library, Norwich, NY.
Dittmar, M., 2002, “Functional and Postural Lateral Preferences in Humans: Interrelations and Life Span Age Differences,” Hum. Biol., 74, pp. 569–585. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mow, V. C., and Huiskes, R., 2005, Basic Orthopaedic Biomechanics and Mechano-Biology, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp. 135–139.
Black, J., and Hastings, G., 1998, Handbook of Biomaterial Properties, Chapman & Hall, London.
Dammak, M., Shirazi-Adl, A., Schwartz, Jr., M., and Gustavson, L., 1997, “Friction Properties at the Bone-Metal Interface: Comparison of Four Different Porous Metal Surfaces,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 35(3), pp. 329–336. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bergmann, G., Graichen, F., and Rohlmann, A., 1993, “Hip Joint Loading During Walking and Running, Measured in Two Patients,” J. Biomech., 26, pp. 969–990. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Phadke, M. S., 1989, “Quality Engineering Using Robust Design,” Prentice-Hall, Englewood, CA.
National Instruments, 2012, Labview, National Instruments, Austin, TX.
Dee, K. C., Puleo, D. A., and Bizois, R., 2002, An Introduction to Tissue-Biomaterial Interactions, Wiley, New York.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Integrated CAE approach for design and optimization of internal fixation systems

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Virtual surgery CAD model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Distal end of CAD model with screw-hole inserts and oblique screw

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Load amplitude function during walking [25]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Distal end of finite element mesh

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Stress field contour plot (simulation No. 2, plate only)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Fracture model with Synthes LISS (far left: fracture with bone loss; right three: distal transverse fracture)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Experimental testing of intact femur fixated with Synthes LISS (left) and three-directional strain gauge rosette placed on distal end of Synthes LISS (right)



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In