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Research Paper

Mechanical Properties of Nanotextured Titanium Orthopedic Screws for Clinical Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Stephane Descamps, Matthew B. Johnson

Professor

Komla O. Awitor

Professor
e-mail: komla.awitor@udamail.fr

Vincent Raspal

C-BIOSENSS
Clermont Université,
Université d'Auvergne,
BP 10448 F-63000
Clermont-Ferrand, France

Curtis F. Doiron

Dept. of Physics and Astronomy,
Nielsen Hall University of Oklahoma,
440 W. Brooks
Norman, OK 73019

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 25, 2012; final manuscript received January 17, 2013; published online June 24, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Jyhwen Wang.

J. Med. Devices 7(2), 021005 (Jun 24, 2013) (5 pages) Paper No: MED-12-1084; doi: 10.1115/1.4023705 History: Received June 25, 2012; Revised January 17, 2013

In this work, we modified the topography of commercial titanium orthopedic screws using electrochemical anodization in a 0.4 wt% hydrofluoric acid solution to produce titanium dioxide nanotube layers. The morphology of the nanotube layers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the nanotube layers were investigated by screwing and unscrewing an anodized screw into several different types of human bone while the torsional force applied to the screwdriver was measured using a torque screwdriver. The range of torsional force applied to the screwdriver was between 5 and 80cN·m. Independent assessment of the mechanical properties of the same surfaces was performed on simple anodized titanium foils using a triboindenter. Results showed that the fabricated nanotube layers can resist mechanical stresses close to those found in clinical situations.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Anodized screw, couple-meter screw driver (a) and femoral head. The front region of the screw ((b), dotted arrow) is inserted into the bone and the rear region ((c), full arrow) is used as a control; (d) image of the bone after drilling.

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Fig. 2

Typical anodization current versus time curve for the Ti screw anodization. Anodization was carried out at room temperature (20 °C) in a 0.4 wt% HF aqueous solution with the anodizing voltage maintained at 20 V. Inset in upper right-hand corner shows the current characteristics from 0 s to 120 s. Inset in lower part shows the SEM top-view image of as anodized screw after 20 min of growth.

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Fig. 3

SEM images of the anodized screws (control part, left, and inserted part, right) for: (a) cancellous; (b) cortical; (c) subchondral; and (d) sclerotic bones. All images are same magnification with scale bars shown.

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Fig. 4

Plan-view SEM images showing surface damage from variable normal-load lateral scratches. Upper left: shows array of all scratches with the maximum normal force labeled. Lower: shows all the individual scratches magnified, first to show the full scratch, and next to show damage threshold. Regions of superficial damage and delamination are shown where appropriate. Inset in lower-left image: shows area where removed TiO2 layer is inverted. Upper right: graphs of applied normal versus measured lateral force for maximum normal forces of 100 and 200 μN. Italic labels show, A: undamaged area; B: superficial damaged area; C: delaminated area; and D: debris.

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