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Technical Briefs

3D Assessments of Patent Foramen Ovale Within Human Hearts: Insights Relative to Design Considerations for Medical Devices

[+] Author and Article Information
Paul A. Iaizzo

Departments of Surgery and Biomedical Engineering
and the Institute for Engineering in Medicine,
University of Minnesota

Manuscript received March 15, 2013; final manuscript received April 29, 2013; published online July 3, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Arthur G. Erdman.

J. Med. Devices 7(3), 030904 (Jul 03, 2013) (2 pages) Paper No: MED-13-1035; doi: 10.1115/1.4024528 History: Received March 15, 2013; Revised April 29, 2013

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References

Furlan, A. J., Reisman, M., Massaro, J., Mauri, L., Adams, H., Albers, G. W., Felberg, R., Herrmann, H., Kar, S., Landzberg, M., Raizner, A., and Wechsler, L., 2012, “Closure or Medical Therapy for Cryptogenic Stroke With Patent Foramen Ovale.,” The New England Journal of Medicine, 366(11), pp. 991–999. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Di Tullio, M., Sacco, R. L., Gopal, a, Mohr, J. P., and Homma, S., 1992, “Patent Foramen Ovale as a Risk Factor for Cryptogenic Stroke.,” Annals of internal medicine, 117(6), pp. 461–465. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Carroll, J. D., Saver, J. L., Thaler, D. E., Smalling, R. W., Berry, S., Macdonald, L. A., Marks, D. S., and Tirschwell, D. L., 2012, “Randomized Evaluation of Recurrent Stroke Comparing PFO Closure to Extabilised Current Standard of Care Treatment,” TCT, pp. 1–30.
El Said, H. G., McMahon, C. J., Mullins, C. E., Pignatelli, R. H., Grifka, R. G., Nihill, M. R., and Vincent, J. A, 2005, “Patent Foramen Ovale Morphology and Impact on Percutaneous Device Closure.,” Pediatric cardiology, 26(1), pp. 62–65. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lee, E. M., Rana, B. S., and Shapiro, L. M., 2012, “Echocardiopgraphy in the Managment of Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) and Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO),” Clinical Echocardiography, M. Y.Henein, ed., Springer London, London, pp. 281–303.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Shown here is a short axis MRI of a heart with a patent foramen ovale (PFO). The right atrium (RA), left atrium (LA), ascending aorta (AA) and descending aorta (DA) can be observed. In this case, an overlap present, but the closure of the septum was incomplete: the primum to the limbus of the fossa indicate the presence of a PFO.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Formalin fixed heart images compared to the same views from generated 3D models. The images show the right atrial portion of the septum. In each of the images the superior aspect of the fossa (to the right of each image) the opening of the PFO can be clearly seen. (A) The formalin fixed heart image of a heart with a tunneling PFO, this heart has a relatively smaller opening than the second heart (C). The 3D models elicit similar anatomies to those found with the fixed heart images and thus may allow for more accurate measurements of PFO sizes and shapes (B and D). With such generated models, any desired projection can be created as well as 3D printouts of these structures.

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