Research Papers

Articulated Manipulator With Multiple Instruments for Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery

[+] Author and Article Information
Carl A. Nelson

e-mail: cnelson5@unl.edu

Shane M. Farritor

Department of Mechanical
and Materials Engineering,
University of Nebraska-Lincoln,
W342 NH Lincoln, NE 68588-0526

Dmitry Oleynikov

Department of Surgery,
Center for Advanced Surgical Technology,
University of Nebraska Medical Center,
985126 Nebraska Medical Center,
Omaha, NE 68198-3280

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 19, 2012; final manuscript received December 11, 2012; published online September 24, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Hamid M. Lankarani.

J. Med. Devices 7(4), 041004 (Sep 24, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: MED-12-1040; doi: 10.1115/1.4025183 History: Received March 19, 2012; Revised December 11, 2012

This paper presents an articulated manipulator with multiple instruments for natural orifice endoscopic transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). This robotic system is made up of four major components, namely a multifunctional manipulator, a robot-connecting arm, an articulated drive mechanism, and a surgeon control console. The manipulator, capable of changing instruments in situ at the surgical site, was developed to reduce infection risk, improve surgical workflow, and encourage solo surgery by providing surgeons with all the required instruments. The robot-connecting arm serves as an experimental platform for future bimanual robot configurations. To facilitate stable positioning and optimal orientation of the robot, the articulated drive mechanism was also created. The surgeon control console provides a user-friendly platform to receive system input from surgeons. Benchtop testing showed adequate articulation and tool-tip forces for accomplishment of typical tasks in abdominal surgery. This system leverages the benefits both of cable-wire actuation systems and of direct motor embedding on different components to achieve better tool triangulation, higher instrument grasping force, and improved positioning at the surgical site.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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Fig. 1

Overall robotic conceptual design: bimanual manipulator inserted via snakelike linkage

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Fig. 2

Overall system prototype developed

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Fig. 3

Manipulator prototype

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Fig. 4

Surgical instruments fabricated, from left to right: fenestrated grasper, curved dissector, straight dissector, and atraumatic graspers

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Fig. 5

Overall system prototype developed (cartridge indexing motions shown): cartridge rotation, instrument deployment, cartridge locking, instrument actuation

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Fig. 6

First-generation robot-connecting arm (a) CAD drawing, (b) physical prototype

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Fig. 7

Cross section of the first-generation robot-connecting arm

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Fig. 8

Second-generation robot-connecting arm (a) CAD drawing, (b) physical prototype

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Fig. 9

A single linkage piece (a) front view, (b) cross section

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Fig. 10

Chain and sprocket for wire manipulation

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Fig. 11

Overall arrangement of motors in housing

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Fig. 12

Motor housing for articulated drive mechanism

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Fig. 13

Surgeon control console for NOTES robotic platform

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Fig. 14

Surgical instrument force analysis

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Fig. 15

Cantilever model for tension analysis (a) entire length, (b) last linkage piece

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Fig. 16

Model of linkage piece and tension analysis

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Fig. 17

Workspace model of bimanual robot attached to articulated drive mechanism

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Fig. 18

The instrument tip force experiments on (a) soft tissues, (b) liver tissues

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Fig. 19

Top view of the drive mechanism (a) maximum angular displacement to the left, (b) maximum angular displacement to the right

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Fig. 20

Point of maximum vertical articulation

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Fig. 21

Reference frame for DH method

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Fig. 22

Comparison between actual and theoretical workspace for drive mechanism




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