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Research Papers

Design and Control of an Magnetic Resonance Compatible Precision Pneumatic Active Cannula Robot

[+] Author and Article Information
David B. Comber

Graduate Research Assistant
e-mail: david.b.comber@vanderbilt.edu

Eric J. Barth

Associate Professor
Mem. ASME
e-mail: eric.j.barth@vanderbilt.edu

Robert J. Webster, III

Assistant Professor
Mem. ASME
e-mail: robert.webster@vanderbilt.edu
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Vanderbilt University,
Nashville, TN 37235

Manuscript received December 21, 2012; final manuscript received May 28, 2013; published online December 6, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Carl A. Nelson.

J. Med. Devices 8(1), 011003 (Dec 06, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: MED-12-1160; doi: 10.1115/1.4024832 History: Received December 21, 2012; Revised May 28, 2013

The versatile uses and excellent soft tissue distinction afforded by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to the development of many MR-compatible devices for MRI-guided interventions. This paper presents a fully pneumatic MR-compatible robotic platform designed for neurosurgical interventions. Actuated by nonmagnetic pneumatic piston-cylinders, the robotic platform manipulates a five degree-of-freedom active cannula designed for deep brain interventions. Long lines of tubing connect the cylinders to remotely located pressure sensors and valves, and MRI-compatible optical sensors mounted on the robot provide the robot joint positions. A robust, nonlinear, model-based controller precisely translates and rotates the robot joints, with mean steady-state errors of 0.032 mm and 0.447 deg, respectively. MRI-compatibility testing in a 3-Tesla closed-bore scanner has shown that the robot has no impact on the signal-to-noise ratio, and that geometric distortion remains within recommended calibration limits for the scanner. These results demonstrate that pneumatic actuation is a promising solution for neurosurgical interventions that either require or can benefit from submillimeter precision. Additionally, this paper provides a detailed solution to the control problems imposed by severe nonlinearities in the pneumatic system, which has not previously been discussed in the context of MR-compatible devices.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Pneumatic piston-cylinder with fail-safe rod lock

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Fig. 2

Photograph of the robotic platform with cranium model. Inset shows the 5 DoFs corresponding to the labeled base joints.

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Fig. 3

Photograph of the linear-to-rotary transmission R1 mounted to plate T2

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Fig. 4

Dynamics of the robot translational mechanism

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Fig. 5

First translation, position tracking of a square wave

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Fig. 6

First translation (T1), endpoint to endpoint positioning

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Fig. 7

Second translation (T2), endpoint to endpoint positioning

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Fig. 8

Third translation (T3), endpoint to endpoint positioning

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Fig. 9

First rotation (R1), point to point angular positioning

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Fig. 10

Second rotation (R2), point to point angular positioning

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