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Research Papers

A Dual-Arm 7-Degrees-of-Freedom Haptics-Enabled Teleoperation Test Bed for Minimally Invasive Surgery

[+] Author and Article Information
Ali Talasaz

Canadian Surgical Technologies
and Advanced Robotics,
Lawson Health Research Institute,
London, ON N6A 5A5, Canada;
Department of Electrical
and Computer Engineering,
Western University,
London, ON N6A 5B9, Canada
e-mail: atalasaz@uwo.ca

Ana Luisa Trejos

Canadian Surgical Technologies
and Advanced Robotics,
Lawson Health Research Institute,
London, ON N6A 5A5, Canada;
Department of Electrical
and Computer Engineering,
Western University,
London, ON N6A 5B9, Canada
e-mail: atrejos@uwo.ca

Simon Perreault

Laval University Robotics Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Laval University,
Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
e-mail: simon.perreault.2@ulaval.ca

Harmanpreet Bassan

Canadian Surgical Technologies
and Advanced Robotics,
Lawson Health Research Institute,
London, ON N6A 5A5, Canada;
Department of Electrical
and Computer Engineering,
Western University,
London, ON N6A 5B9, Canada
e-mail: hsbassan@alumni.uwo.ca

Rajni V. Patel

Project Leader and Senior Author
Canadian Surgical Technologies
and Advanced Robotics,
Lawson Health Research Institute,
London, ON N6A 5A5, Canada;
Department of Electrical
and Computer Engineering,
Western University,
London, ON N6A 5B9, Canada;
Department of Surgery,
London, ON N6A 4V2, Canada
e-mail: rvpatel@uwo.ca

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received August 25, 2013; final manuscript received February 17, 2014; published online xx xx, xxxx. Assoc. Editor: Venketesh Dubey.

J. Med. Devices 8(4), 041004 (Aug 19, 2014) (15 pages) Paper No: MED-13-1200; doi: 10.1115/1.4026984 History: Received August 25, 2013; Revised February 17, 2014

This paper describes a dual-arm teleoperation (master-slave) system which has been developed to explore the effect of haptics in robotics-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RAMIS). This setup is capable of measuring forces in 7 degrees of freedom (DOF) and fully reflecting them to the operator through two 7-DOF haptic interfaces. An application of the test bed is in enabling the evaluation of the effect of replacing haptic feedback by other sensory cues such as visual representation of haptic information (sensory substitution). This paper discusses the design rationale, kinematic analysis and dynamic modeling of the robot manipulators, and the control system developed for the setup. Using the accurate model developed in this paper, a highly transparent haptics-enabled system can be achieved and used in robot-assisted telesurgery. Validation results obtained through experiments are presented and demonstrate the correctness and effectiveness of the developed models. The application of the setup for two RAMIS surgical tasks, a suture manipulation task and a tumor localization task, is described with different haptics modalities available through the developed haptics-enabled system for each application.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

The dual-arm teleoperation setup

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Fig. 2

5-DOF haptic wand device modified to 7-DOF

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Fig. 3

CAD rendering of the upper handle drive

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Fig. 4

Kinematic wire frame model of the 7-DOF haptic wand

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Fig. 5

Dynamic wire frame model of the 7-DOF haptic wand; (1) the top triple motor assembly, (2) top left drive arm, (3) top right drive arm, (4) top left passive arm, (5) top right passive arm, (6) bottom triple motor assembly, (7) bottom left drive arm, (8) bottom right drive arm, (9) bottom left passive arm, (10) bottom right passive arm, and (11) the handle

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Fig. 6

Friction measured along x and y axes

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Fig. 7

Sensorized instruments showing various tips and a closeup of the strain gauges applied to the cable shafts

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Fig. 8

Kinematic modeling of a cable-driven endoscopic tool

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Fig. 9

The control block diagram designed for the setup: Jacobian transpose impedance control at the master side and position control with software-based RCM at the slave side

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Fig. 10

Comparison between the model Cartesian trajectory and the one from optical tracker

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Fig. 11

End-effector position tracking performance using model-based controller

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Fig. 12

End-effector orientation tracking performance using model-based controller

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Fig. 13

Grasper angular position tracking performance using model-based controller

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Fig. 14

Tracking error for model-based controller

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Fig. 15

Joint torques during tracking experiment for model-based controller

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Fig. 16

The dual-arm teleoperation setup performing suturing

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Fig. 17

Three different force feedback scenarios for suturing

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Fig. 18

Quality of the knots

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Fig. 19

Pulling force applied on the sutures in the three scenarios

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Fig. 20

The single-arm teleoperation setup palpating tissue

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Fig. 21

Haptics information given to surgeon during tumor localization

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Fig. 22

A palpation case study using the haptics-enabled teleoperation setup: (a) the pressure map; (b) the tumor force; (c) the palpation force measured by the ATI force sensor and the high gain observer; and (d) the lateral forces measured by the ATI force sensor and the high gain observer

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