Technical Brief

Computer-Aided Ruler-Based on Symmetric Points Detection for Botox Injections1

[+] Author and Article Information
Leila Azinfar, Mohammadreza Ravanfar, Reza Fazel-Rezai

Department of Electrical Engineering,
University of North Dakota,
Upson Hall II Room 160,
243 Centennial Drive Stop 7165,
Grand Forks, ND 58202

Accepted and presented at the Design of Medical Devices Conference (DMD2014), Minneapolis, MN, April 7–10, 2014.

Manuscript received February 21, 2014; final manuscript received March 3, 2014; published online July 21, 2014. Editor: Arthur G. Erdman.

J. Med. Devices 8(3), 030957 (Jul 21, 2014) (2 pages) Paper No: MED-14-1131; doi: 10.1115/1.4027125 History: Received February 21, 2014; Revised March 03, 2014

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Lew, M. F., 2002, “Review of the FDA-Approved Uses of Botulinum Toxins, Including Data Suggesting Efficacy in Pain Reduction,” Clin. J. Pain, 18, pp. 142–146. [CrossRef]
Clark, R. P., and Berris, C. E., 1989, “Botulinum Toxin: A Treatment for Facial Asymmetry Caused by Facial Nerve Paralysis,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg., 84(2), pp. 353–355. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fagien, S., 1999, “Botox for the Treatment of Dynamic and Hyperkinetic Facial Lines and Furrows: Adjunctive Use in Facial Aesthetic Surgery,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg., 103, pp. 701–713. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Edelstein, C., Shorr, N., Jacobs, J., Balch, K., and Goldberg, R., 1998, “Oculoplastic Experience With the Cosmetic Use of Botulinum A Exotoxin,” Dermatol. Surg., 24, pp. 1208–1212. [PubMed]
Carruthers, J. A., Lowe, N. J., Menter, M. A., Gibson, J., Nordquist, M., Mordaunt, J., Walker, P., and Eadie, N., 2002, “A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Botulinum Toxin Type A in the Treatment of Glabellar Lines,” Am. Acad. Dermatol. J., 46, pp. 840–849. [CrossRef]
Spencer, J. M., Gordon, M., and Goldberg, D. J., 2002, “Botulinum B Treatment of the Glabellar and Frontalis Regions: A Dose Response Analysis,” Cosmet. Laser Ther. J., 4, pp. 19–23. [CrossRef]
Dayan, S. H., and Bassichis, B. A., 2003, “Evaluation of the Patient for Cosmetic Botox Injections,” Facial Plastic Surg. Clin. North Am., 11, pp. 349–358. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Activity of the frontalis muscle and markings [7]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The flowchart of the developed system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The desired symmetric point has been shown with a gray square. The head is not in the straightforward position to the camera.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The report to the physician about changing the position of the marked point



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