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Technical Brief

Wearable Virtual White Cane: Assistive Technology for Navigating the Visually Impaired1

[+] Author and Article Information
Yabiao Gao, Ka-Wai Kwok, Alex Squires, Ho Tse

College of Engineering,
University of Georgia,
Athens, GA 30602

Rahul Chandrawanshi

Indian Institute of Technology (BHU),
Indian Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221005, India

Amy C. Nau

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center,
Pittsburgh, PA 15213

Accepted and presented at the Design of Medical Devices Conference (DMD2014), Minneapolis, MN, April 7–10, 2014.DOI: 10.1115/1.4027033

Manuscript received February 21, 2014; final manuscript received March 3, 2014; published online April 28, 2014. Editor: Arthur G. Erdman.

J. Med. Devices 8(2), 020931 (Apr 28, 2014) (2 pages) Paper No: MED-14-1062; doi: 10.1115/1.4027033 History: Received February 21, 2014; Revised March 03, 2014

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References

Manduchi, R., Kurniawan, S., and Bagherina, H., 2010, “Blind Guidance Using Mobile Computer Vision: A Usability Study,” 12th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility (ASSETS 2010), Orlando, FL, October 25–27, pp. 241–242. [CrossRef]
Meijer, P., 1992, “An Experimental System for Auditory Image Representations,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 39(2), pp. 112–121. [CrossRef]
Kostopoulos, K., Moustakas, K., Tzovaras, D., and Nikolakis, G., 2007, “Haptic Access to Conventional 2D Maps for the Visually Impaired,” 1st International Conference on 3DTV (3DTV-CON 2007), Kos Island, Greece, May 7–9. [CrossRef]
Xiao, J., Ramdath, K., Iosilevish, M., and Sigh, D., 2013, “A Low Cost Outdoor Assistive Navigation System for Blind People,” 8th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA), Melbourne, Canada, June 19–21, pp. 828–833. [CrossRef]
Lee, W. C., and Leung, M. K. H., 2004, “SINVI: Smart Indoor Navigation for the Visually Impaired,” 8th Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision Conference (ICARCV 2004), Kunming, China, December 6–9, pp. 1072–1077. [CrossRef]
Palleja, T., Tresanchez, M., Teixido, M., and Palacin, J., 2010, “Bioinspired Electronic White Cane Implementation Based on a LIDAR, a Tri-Axial Accelerometer and a Tactile Belt,” Sensors, 10(12), pp. 11322–11339. [CrossRef]
Black, J., and Hill, J., 2003, “The Miniguide: A New Electronic Travel Device,” J. Visual Impairment Blindness (JVIB), 97(10), pp. 655.
Ritz, M., and Konig, L., 2005, “Laser Technique Improves Safety for the Blind,” MST News, 5, 9p. 39–40.
Heyes, A. D., 1984, “The Sonic Pathfinder: A New Electronic Travel Aid,” J. Visual Impairment Blindness, 78, pp. 200–202.
Dodds, A. G., 1983, “The Sonic Pathfinder—An Objective Evaluation,” Int. J. Rehabil. Res., 6(3), pp. 350–351. [CrossRef]
Goldstein, B. A., and Wiener, W. R., 1981, “Acoustic Analysis of the Sonic Guide,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 70(2), pp. 313–320. [CrossRef]
Abidin, A. H. Z., Xie, H., and Wong, K. W., 2012, “Blind Users' Mental Model of Web Page Using Touch Screen Augmented With Audio Feedback,” Internationl Conference on Computer & Information Science (ICCIS), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, June 12–14, pp. 1046–1051. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Four wearable units providing panoramic sensing data; (b) path 1 (blue) is 80 m long, where the subject encountered three T-junctions and made two right turns. Path 2 (red) is 65 m long with one T-junction, two left turns, and one set of stairs.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) Key components, along with wireless charging circuit held tightly in the box. The Seeeduino controller and audible buzzer are secured tightly on the printed circuit film. (b) The sensing unit in a small box (54 × 37 × 23 mm).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Average navigation time of five subjects

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