Research Papers

Silicone-Based Tissue-Mimicking Phantom for Needle Insertion Simulation

[+] Author and Article Information
Yancheng Wang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: yancwang@umich.edu

Bruce L. Tai

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: ljtai@umich.edu

Hongwei Yu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: yhongwei@umich.edu

Albert J. Shih

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109;
Department of Biomedical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: shiha@umich.edu

Manuscript received February 27, 2013; final manuscript received January 6, 2014; published online March 7, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Carl A. Nelson.

J. Med. Devices 8(2), 021001 (Mar 07, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: MED-13-1020; doi: 10.1115/1.4026508 History: Received February 27, 2013; Revised January 06, 2014

Silicone-based tissue-mimicking phantom is widely used as a surrogate of tissue for clinical simulators, allowing clinicians to practice medical procedures and researchers to study the performance of medical devices. This study investigates using the mineral oil in room-temperature vulcanizing silicone to create the desired mechanical properties and needle insertion characteristics of a tissue-mimicking phantom. Silicone samples mixed with 0, 20, 30, and 40 wt. % mineral oil were fabricated for indentation and needle insertion tests and compared to four types of porcine tissues (liver, muscle with the fiber perpendicular or parallel to the needle, and fat). The results demonstrated that the elastic modulus and needle insertion force of the phantom both decrease with an increasing concentration of mineral oil. Use of the mineral oil in silicone could effectively tailor the elastic modulus and needle insertion force to mimic the soft tissue. The silicone mixed with 40 wt. % mineral oil was found to be the best tissue-mimicking phantom and can be utilized for needle-based medical procedures.

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Fig. 1

Molding of the TM silicone phantom: (a) plastic mold, (b) mold internal geometry, (c) silicone phantom in the mold, and (d) a silicone phantom specimen after molding

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Fig. 2

Indentation test for elastic modulus measurements: (a) before indenter compression, (b) close up view of the indenter of the durometer, and (c) after indenter compression

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Fig. 3

Needle insertion test experimental setup: (a) overview, (b) close up view of the trocar tip and the silicone specimen, and (c) shape of the specimen holder and specimen

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Fig. 4

Test specimens in the holder (a) muscle perpendicular to the fiber, (b) silicone specimen, and (c) schematic view of the six needle insertion positions in the specimen holder

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Fig. 5

Needle insertion forces for silicone with 0% mineral oil

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Fig. 6

Needle insertion force versus time for four silicone specimen with: (a) 0, (b) 20, (c) 30, and (d) 40 wt. % mineral oil

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Fig. 7

Needle insertion force versus time for four types of porcine soft tissue: (a) fat, (b) muscle perpendicular to the fiber, (c) muscle parallel to the fiber, and (d) liver

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Fig. 8

Average and standard deviation of the force components of (a) silicone specimens, and (b) porcine ex vivo tissues for six repeated needle insertion

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Fig. 9

The degradation of (a) forward, and (b) backward friction forces throughout five phases for six repeated needle insertion



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