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Technical Brief

Mechatronic System for ABO Human Blood Typing

[+] Author and Article Information
Vânia Moreira, Ana Ferraz

Algoritmi Research Centre,
University of Minho,
Campus de Azurém,
Guimarães 4800-058, Portugal

José Machado

CT2M, University of Minho,
Campus de Azurém,
Guimarães 4800-058, Portugal

Vítor Carvalho

Algoritmi Research Centre,
University of Minho,
Campus de Azurém,
Guimarães 4800-058, Portugal;
IPCA-EST,
Campus do IPCA,
Barcelos 4750-810, Portugal
e-mail: vitor.carvalho@algoritmi.uminho.pt

Filomena Soares

Algoritmi Research Centre,
University of Minho,
Campus de Azurém,
Guimarães 4800-058, Portugal

1Corresponding author

Manuscript received April 14, 2014; final manuscript received July 23, 2014; published online September 4, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Rafael V. Davalos.

J. Med. Devices 8(4), 044507 (Sep 04, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: MED-14-1170; doi: 10.1115/1.4028201 History: Received April 14, 2014; Revised July 23, 2014

In medical emergency situations, when a patient needs a blood transfusion, the universal blood type O is administered. This procedure may lead to the depletion of stock reserves of O blood. Nowadays, there is no commercial equipment capable of determining the patient's blood type in situ, in a fast and reliable process. Human blood typing is usually performed through the manual test, which involves a macroscopic observation and interpretation of the results by an analyst. This test, despite of having a fast response time, may lead to human errors, which sometimes can be fatal to the patient. This paper presents the development of an automatic mechatronic prototype for determining human blood typing (ABO and Rh systems) through image processing techniques. The prototype design takes into account the characteristics of reliability of analysis, portability, and response time allowing the system to be used in emergency situations. The developed prototype performs blood and reagents mixture acquires the resultant image and processes the data (based on image processing techniques) to determine the sample blood type. It was tested in a laboratory, using cataloged samples of blood types, provided by the Portuguese Institute of Blood and Transplantation. Hereafter, it is expected to test and validate the prototype in clinical environments.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Results of the manual test mixing between the reagents with the blood sample. (a) Absence of agglutination and (b) presence of agglutination [2].

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Fig. 2

Mechanical system conceptual 3D model of blood typing (100 × 85 × 145 mm); A—basis, B—data acquisition system; C—samples system, and D—cover [2]

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Fig. 3

Basis of samples system

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Fig. 4

Cover of the samples system

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Fig. 5

Cam (technical drawing) and illustration: cam and follower

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Fig. 6

Simulation results of the movement (displacement, velocity, and acceleration) of the cam when 220 rpm on the motor's shaft

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Fig. 7

Blood typing prototype

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Fig. 8

Prototype for human blood typing. (a) Mechatronic system for human blood typing; (b) computer; (c) user interface (in Portuguese); and (d) blood type classification.

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Fig. 9

Prototype's block diagram

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