In medical emergency situations, when a patient needs a blood transfusion, the universal blood type O− is administered. This procedure may lead to the depletion of stock reserves of O− blood. Nowadays, there is no commercial equipment capable of determining the patient's blood type in situ, in a fast and reliable process. Human blood typing is usually performed through the manual test, which involves a macroscopic observation and interpretation of the results by an analyst. This test, despite of having a fast response time, may lead to human errors, which sometimes can be fatal to the patient. This paper presents the development of an automatic mechatronic prototype for determining human blood typing (ABO and Rh systems) through image processing techniques. The prototype design takes into account the characteristics of reliability of analysis, portability, and response time allowing the system to be used in emergency situations. The developed prototype performs blood and reagents mixture acquires the resultant image and processes the data (based on image processing techniques) to determine the sample blood type. It was tested in a laboratory, using cataloged samples of blood types, provided by the Portuguese Institute of Blood and Transplantation. Hereafter, it is expected to test and validate the prototype in clinical environments.