Research Papers

Feasibility of Shape Memory Alloy Wire Actuation for an Active Steerable Cannula

[+] Author and Article Information
Bardia Konh

Department of Mechanical Engineering
of Temple University,
1947 North 12th Street,
Philadelphia, PA 19122
e-mail: konh@temple.edu

Naresh V. Datla

Department of Mechanical Engineering
of Temple University,
1947 North 12th Street,
Philadelphia, PA 19122
e-mail: datla@mech.iitd.ac.in

Parsaoran Hutapea

Associate Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
of Temple University,
1947 North 12th Street,
Philadelphia, PA 19122
e-mail: hutapea@temple.edu

1Present address: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India.

2Corresponding author.

Manuscript received May 23, 2014; final manuscript received January 5, 2015; published online April 24, 2015. Assoc. Editor: John LaDisa.

J. Med. Devices 9(2), 021002 (Jun 01, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: MED-14-1184; doi: 10.1115/1.4029557 History: Received May 23, 2014; Revised January 05, 2015; Online April 24, 2015

Needle insertion is used in many diagnostic and therapeutic percutaneous medical procedures such as brachytherapy, thermal ablations, and breast biopsy. Insufficient accuracy using conventional surgical cannulas motivated researchers to provide actuation forces to the cannula's body for compensating the possible errors of surgeons/physicians. In this study, we present the feasibility of using shape memory alloy (SMA) wires as actuators for an active steerable surgical cannula. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of the active steerable cannula was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of using SMA wires as actuators to bend the surgical cannula. The material characteristics of SMAs were simulated by defining multilinear elastic isothermal stress–strain curves that were generated through a matlab code based on the Brinson model. Rigorous experiments with SMA wires were done to determine the material properties as well as to show the capability of the code to predict a stabilized SMA transformation behavior with sufficient accuracy. In the FE simulation, birth and death method was used to achieve the prestrain condition on SMA wire prior to actuation. This numerical simulation was validated with cannula deflection experiments with developed prototypes of the active cannula. Several design parameters affecting the cannula's deflection such as the cannula's Young's modulus, the SMA's prestrain, and its offset from the neutral axis of the cannula were studied using the FE model. Real-time experiments with different prototypes showed that the quickest response and the maximum deflection were achieved by the cannula with two sections of actuation compared to a single section of actuation. The numerical and experimental studies showed that a highly maneuverable active cannulas can be achieved using the actuation of multiple SMA wires in series.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Kronreif, G., Ptacek, W., Kornfeld, M., and Furst, M., 2012, “Evaluation of Robotic Assistance in Neurosurgical Applications,” J. Rob. Surg., 6(1), pp. 33–39. [CrossRef]
Patil, S., Burgner, J., Webster, R. J., III, and Alterovitz, R., 2014, “Needle Steering in 3-D Via Rapid Replanning,” IEEE Trans. Rob.30(4), pp. 853–864. [CrossRef]
Swaney, P. J., Burgner, J., Gilbert, H. B., and Webster, R. J., III, 2013, “A Flexure-Based Steerable Needle: High Curvature With Reduced Tissue Damage,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 60(4), pp. 906–909. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Webster, R. J., III, Okamura, A. M., and Cowan, N. J., 2006, “Toward Active Cannulas: Miniature Snake-Like Surgical Robots,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2006), Beijing, China, Oct. 9–15, pp. 2857–2863. [CrossRef]
Roesthuis, R. J., Kemp, M., van den Dobbelsteen, J. J., and Misra, S., 2014, “Three-Dimensional Needle Shape Reconstruction Using an Array of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron., 19(4), pp. 1115–1126. [CrossRef]
Henken, K. R., Dankelman, J., van den Dobbelsteen, J. J., Cheng, L. K., and van der Heiden, M. S., 2014, “Error Analysis of FBG-Based Shape Sensors for Medical Needle Tracking,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron., 19(5), pp. 1523–1531. [CrossRef]
Podder, T. K., Dicker, A. P., Hutapea, P., and Yu, Y., 2012, “A Novel Curvilinear Approach for Prostate Seed Implantation,” J. Med. Phys., 39(4), pp. 1887–1892. [CrossRef]
Stock, R. G., Stone, N. N., Lo, Y. C., Malhado, N., Kao, J., and DeWyngaert, J. K., 2000, “Postimplant Dosimetry for 125I Prostate Implants: Definitions and Factors Affecting Outcome,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys., 48(3), pp. 899–906. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Datla, N. V., Honarvar, M., Nguyen, T. M., Konh, B., Darvish, K., Yu, Y., Dicker, A. P., Podder, T. K., and Hutapea, P., 2012, “Towards a Nitinol Actuator for an Active Surgical Needle,” ASME Paper No. SMASIS2012-8204. [CrossRef]
Konh, B., Honarvar, M., and Hutapea, P., 2013, “Application of SMA Wire for an Active Steerable Cannula,” ASME Paper No. SMASIS2013-3142. [CrossRef]
Honarvar, M., Datla, N. V., Konh, B., Podder, T. K., Dicker, A. P., Yu, Y., and Hutapea, P., 2014, “Study of Unrecovered Strain and Critical Stresses in One-Way Shape Memory Nitinol,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 23(8), pp. 2885–2893. [CrossRef]
Tang, L., Chen, Y., and He, X., 2007, “Magnetic Force Aided Compliant Needle Navigation and Needle Performance Analysis,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO 2007), Sanya, China, Dec. 15–18, pp. 612–616. [CrossRef]
Ayvali, E., Liang, C. P., Ho, M., Chen, Y., and Desai, J. P., 2012, “Towards a Discretely Actuated Steerable Cannula for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures,” Int. J. Rob. Res., 31(5), pp. 588–603. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ryu, S. C., Quek, Z. F., Renaud, P., Black, R. J., Daniel, B. L., and Cutkosky, M. R., 2012, “An Optical Actuation System and Curvature Sensor for a MR-Compatible Active Needle,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Saint Paul, MN, May 14–18, pp. 1589–1594. [CrossRef]
Crews, J. H., and Buckner, G. D., 2012, “Design Optimization of a Shape Memory Alloy-Actuated Robotic Catheter,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 23(5), pp. 545–562. [CrossRef]
Heintze, O., Seelecke, S., and Bueskens, C., 2003, “Modeling and Optimal Control of Microscale SMA Actuators,” Proc. SPIE, 5049, pp. 495–505. [CrossRef]
Datla, N. V., Konh, B., Honarvar, M., Podder, T. K., Dicker, A. P., Yu, Y., and Hutapea, P., 2013, “A Model to Predict Deflection of Bevel-Tipped Active Needle Advancing in Soft Tissue,” Med. Eng. Phys., 36(3), pp. 258–293. [CrossRef]
Konh, B., Datla, N. V., and Hutapea, P., 2014, “Analysis Driven Design Optimization of SMA Based Steerable Active Needle,” ASME Paper No. SMASIS2014-7522. [CrossRef]
Shu, S. G., Lagoudas, D. C., Hughes, D., and Wen, J. T., 1997, “Modeling of a Flexible Beam Actuated by Shape Memory Alloy Wires,” J. Smart Mater. Struct., 6(3), pp. 265–277. [CrossRef]
Atkinson, G., Kirkpatrick, K., Harti, D., and Valasek, J., 2012, “Application of SMA Actuators to Spacesuit Glove Mobility,” ASME Paper No. SMASIS2012-8068. [CrossRef]
Terriault, P., Viens, F., and Brailovski, V., 2006, “Non-Isothermal Finite Element Modeling of a Shape Memory Alloy Actuator Using ANSYS,” Comput. Mater. Sci., 36(4), pp. 397–410. [CrossRef]
Elahinia, M. H., Hashemi, M., Tabesh, M., and Bhaduri, S. B., 2012, “Manufacturing and Processing of NiTi Implants: A Review,” Prog. Mater. Sci., 57(5), pp. 911–946. [CrossRef]
Jacobs, K., Harper, M., Roth, B., Meyer, E., and Hutapea, P., 2009, “Development of a Proof-of-Concept Aircraft Smart Control System,” Aeronaut. J., 113(1147), pp. 587–590. [CrossRef]
Luo, Y., and Hutapea, P., 2009, “Design of a Bone Transport Device Using Smart Material Actuators,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 131(9), p. 091005. [CrossRef]
Tanaka, K., Kobayashi, S., and Sato, Y., 1986, “Thermomechanics of Transformation Pseudoelasticity and Shape Memory Effect in Alloys,” Int. J. Plast., 2(1), pp. 59–72. [CrossRef]
Liang, C., and Rogers, C. A., 1990, “One-Dimensional Thermomechanical Constitutive Relations for Shape Memory Materials,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 1(2), pp. 207–234. [CrossRef]
Lagoudas, D. C., 2008, Shape Memory Alloys: Modeling and Engineering Applications, Vol. 1, Springer, New York.
Eaton-Evans, J., Dulieu-Barton, J. M., Little, E. G., and Brown, I. A., 2007, “Observations During Mechanical Testing of Nitinol,” J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 222(2), pp. 97–106. [CrossRef]
Boyd, J. G., and Lagoudas, D. C., 1996, “A Thermodynamic Constitutive Model for the Shape Memory Materials. Part I. The Monolithic Shape Memory Alloys,” Int. J. Plast., 12(6), pp. 805–842. [CrossRef]
Brinson, L. C., 1993, “One-Dimensional Constitutive Behavior of Shape Memory Alloys: Thermomechanical Derivation With Non-Constant Material Functions and Redefined Martensite Internal Variable,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 4(2), pp. 229–242. [CrossRef]
Prahlad, H., and Chopra, I., 2001, “Comparative Evaluation of Shape Memory Alloy Constitutive Models With Experimental Data,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 12(6), pp. 383–395. [CrossRef]
Konh, B., and Hutapea, P., 2013, “Finite Element Simulation of an Active Surgical Needle for Prostate Brachytherapy,” ASME Paper No. FMD2013-16049. [CrossRef]
Honarvar, M., Konh, B., Datla, N. V., Devlin, S., and Hutapea, P., 2013, “Size Effect on the Critical Stress of Nitinol Wires,” ASME Paper No. SMASIS2013-3157. [CrossRef]
Konh, B., Honarvar, M., and Hutapea, P., 2014, “Design Optimization Study of a Shape Memory Alloy Active Needle for Biomedical Applications,” J. Med. Eng. Phys. (in press).
Terriault, P., and Brailovski, V., 2011, “Modeling of Shape Memory Alloy Actuators Using Likhachev's Formulation,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 22(4), pp. 353–368. [CrossRef]
Orlando, F., Joseph, M., Kumar, M., Franz, K., Konh, B., Hutapea, P., Zhao, Y., Dicker, A., Yu, Y., and Podder, T. K., 2014, “Control of Shape Memory Alloy Actuated Flexible Needle Using Multimodal Sensory Feedbacks,” 3rd International Conference on Control, Robotics and Informations (ICCRI), Hong Kong, Dec. 26–28.
Ryu, S. C., Renaud, P., Black, R. J., Daniel, B. L., and Cutkosky, M. R., 2011, “Feasibility Study of an Optically Actuated MR-Compatible Active Needle,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), San Francisco, CA, Sept. 25–30, pp. 2564–2569. [CrossRef]
Datla, N. V., Konh, B., and Hutapea, P., 2014, “A Flexible Active Needle for Steering in Soft Tissues,” 40th Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference (NEBEC), Boston, MA, Apr. 25–27. [CrossRef]
Datla, N. V., Konh, B., and Hutapea, P., 2014, “Studies With SMA Actuated Needle for Steering Within Tissue,” ASME Paper No. SMASIS2014-7523. [CrossRef]
McDannold, N. J., King, R. L., Jolesz, F. A., and Hynynen, K. H., 2000, “Usefulness of MR Imaging-Derived Thermometry and Dosimetry in Determining the Threshold for Tissue Damage Induced by Thermal Surgery in Rabbits,” Radiology, 216(2), pp. 517–523. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Datla, N. V., Konh, B., Koo, J., Daniel, W. C., Yu, Y., Dicker, A. P., Podder, T. K., Darvish, K., and Hutapea, P., 2014, “Polyacrylamide Phantom for Self-Actuating Needle-Tissue Interaction Studies,” Med. Eng. Phys., 36(1), pp. 140–145. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Myllymaa, S., Myllymaa, K., Korhonen, H., Lammi, M. J., Tiitu, V., and Lappalainen, R., 2010, “Surface Characterization and In Vitro Biocompatibility Assessment of Photosensitive Polyimide Films,” Colloids Surf., B, 76(2), pp. 505–511. [CrossRef]
Shah, T. M., and Gordon, R. E., 2003, “Polyimide Coated Shape-Memory Material and Method of Making Same,” U.S. Patent No. 6,509,094 B1.
Allen, D. M., Leong, T., Lim, S. H., and Kohl, M., 1997, “Photofabrication of the Third Dimension of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Microactuators,” Proc. SPIE, 3225, pp. 126–132. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Geometry and mesh of a two-section active cannula modeled in ansys

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic design of the active steerable cannula

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

General methodology required for capturing the SMA wire actuation capability

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic pictures of the experimental setup for (a) the constant stress and (b) the constant strain experiments

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for measuring the deflection of the prototype

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Isothermal stress–strain curve for the SMA wire diameter of 0.20 mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Temperature response using Terriault and Brailovski resistance heating formulation; 1.5 A was applied for 15 s followed by ambient cooling, D = 0.48 mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Comparison of (a) stress–temperature and (b) strain–temperature response of SMA wires obtained using the Brinson model and from experiments

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Strain–temperature response of a SMA wire: (a) typical curve to determine the transformation temperatures and (b) curves from a 0.20 mm diameter wire under different stress levels

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Transformation temperatures at different levels of stress for SMA wires of 0.20 mm diameter

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison of stress–strain response obtained from the Brinson model and the isothermal test for 0.20 mm SMA wire

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Real-time deflection of different cannulas due to the applied current as a ramp function

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Deflection of cannulas of different Young's modulus

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Verification of the FE model using the corresponding prototype for (a) one-section (P1) and (b) two-section models (P5)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

The effect of SMA's prestrain and its offset from the neutral axis of the cannula on the maximum deflection



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In