Research Papers

Assessment of Probe-to-Specimen Distance Effect in Kidney Stone Treatment With Hydrodynamic Cavitation

[+] Author and Article Information
Dogan Uzusen

Mechatronics Engineering Program,
Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences,
Sabancı University,
Orhanli, Istanbul 34956, Turkey
e-mail: doganu@sabanciuniv.edu

Ebru Demir

Mechatronics Engineering Program,
Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences,
Sabancı University,
Orhanli, Istanbul 34956, Turkey
e-mail: ebrudemir@sabanciuniv.edu

Osman Yavuz Perk

Mechatronics Engineering Program,
Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences,
Sabancı University,
Orhanli, Istanbul 34956, Turkey
e-mail: yavuzperk@sabanciuniv.edu

Ozlem Oral

Biological Sciences and Bioengineering Program,
Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences,
Sabanci University Nanotechnology
Research and Application Center,
Sabancı University,
Orhanli, Tulza, Istanbul 34956, Turkey
e-mail: ozlemoral@sabanciuniv.edu

Sinan Ekici

Department of Urology,
Maltepe University Hospital,
Maltepe University,
Maltepe, Istanbul 34956, Turkey
e-mail: ekicimiami@yahoo.com

Mustafa Unel

Mechatronics Engineering Program,
Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences,
Sabancı University,
Orhanli, Istanbul 34956, Turkey
e-mail: munel@sabanciuniv.edu

Devrim Gozuacik

Molecular Biology, Genetics and
Bioengineering Program,
Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences,
Sabancı University,
Orhanli, Tuzla, Istanbul 34956, Turkey
e-mail: dgozuacik@sabanciuniv.edu

Ali Kosar

Mechatronics Engineering Program,
Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences,
Sabancı University,
Orhanli, Istanbul 34956, Turkey
e-mail: kosara@sabanciuniv.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 21, 2014; final manuscript received March 19, 2015; published online July 16, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Rosaire Mongrain.

J. Med. Devices 9(3), 031001 (Sep 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: MED-14-1154; doi: 10.1115/1.4030274 History: Received March 21, 2014; Revised March 19, 2015; Online July 16, 2015

The aim of this study is to focus on the effect of probe-to-specimen distance in kidney stone treatment with hydrodynamic bubbly cavitation. Cavitating bubbles were generated by running phosphate buffered saline (PBS) through stainless steel tubing of inner diameter of 1.56 mm at an inlet pressure of ∼10,000 kPa, which was connected to a 0.75 mm long probe with an inner diameter of 147 μm at the exit providing a sudden contraction and thus low local pressures. The bubbles were targeted on the surface of nine calcium oxalate kidney stones (submerged in a water pool at room temperature and atmospheric pressure) from three different distances, namely, 0.5 mm, 2.75 mm, and 7.75 mm. The experiments were repeated for three different time durations (5 min, 10 min, and 20 min). The experimental data show that amongst the three distances considered, the distance of 2.75 mm results in the highest erosion amount and highest erosion rate (up to 0.94 mg/min), which suggests that a closer distance does not necessarily lead to a higher erosion rate and that the probe-to-specimen distance is a factor of great importance, which needs to be optimized. In order to be able to explain the experimental results, a visualization study was also conducted with a high speed CMOS camera. A new correlation was developed to predict the erosion rates on kidney stones exposed to hydrodynamic cavitation as a function of material properties, time, and distance.

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Fig. 2

Flow rate as a function of inlet pressure

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Fig. 3

Bubble cloud emerging from the probe exit at different cavitation intensities with assessment of effective range of bubbles and assessment of effective volume

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Fig. 4

Penetration length as a function of cavitationnumber

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Fig. 5

Effective volume as a function of cavitation number

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Fig. 1

(a) Microchannel configuration with the orifice throat and exit area and experimental placement of the kidney stone and (b) experimental setup

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Fig. 8

Comparison of experimental erosion rate with predictions of the proposed correlation

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Fig. 9

(a) SEM image of an unexposed sample and (b) SEM image of exposed sample (exposed for 20 min at a probe–specimen distance of 2.25 mm)

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Fig. 6

Experimental results of kidney stone amount (mg) as a function of time (min) at 9790 kPa pressure for the probe–specimen distances of 0.5, 2.75, and 7.75 mm

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Fig. 7

Experimental results of kidney stone erosion rate (% min−1 with respect to the initial mass) as a function of time (min) at 9790 kPa pressure for the probe–specimen distances of 0.5, 2.75, and 7.75 mm



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