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Special Section Technical Briefs

Principles of Within Electrode Current Steering1

[+] Author and Article Information
Niranjan Khadka, Dennis Q. Truong, Marom Bikson

Department of Biomedical Engineering,
The City College of New York,
CUNY,
New York, NY 10031

Accepted and presented at The Design of Medical Devices Conference (DMD2015), April 13-16, 2015, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Manuscript received March 3, 2015; final manuscript received March 17, 2015; published online April 24, 2015. Editor: Arthur Erdman.

J. Med. Devices 9(2), 020947 (Jun 01, 2015) (2 pages) Paper No: MED-15-1053; doi: 10.1115/1.4030126 History: Received March 03, 2015; Revised March 17, 2015; Online April 24, 2015

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Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Topics: Electrodes , Design
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References

Nitsche, M. A., Liebetanz, D., Lang, N., Antal, A., Tergau, F., and Paulus, W., 2003, “Safety Criteria for Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation,” Clin. Neurophysiol., 114(11), pp. 2220–2222. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Butson, C. R., and McIntyre, C. C., 2008, “Current Steering to Control the Volume of Tissue Activated During Deep Brain Stimulation,” Brain Stimul., 1(1), pp. 7–15. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Khadka, N., Rahman, A., Sarantos, C., Truong, D. Q., and Bikson, M., 2015, “Methods for Specific Electrode Resistance Measurement During Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation,” Brain Stimul., 8(1), pp. 150–159. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Poreisz, C., Boros, K., Antal, A., and Paulus, W., 2007, “Safety Aspects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Concerning Healthy Subjects and Patients,” Brain Res. Bull., 72(4–6), pp. 208–214 [CrossRef]. [PubMed]
Kronberg, G., and Bikson, M., 2012, “Electrode Assembly Design for Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: A FEM Modeling Study,” Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), San Diego, CA, Aug. 28–Sept. 1, pp. 891–895 [CrossRef].
Sadleir, R. J., Vannorsdall, T. D., Schretlen, D. J., and Gordon, B., 2010, “Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in a Realistic Head Model,” Neuroimage, 41(4), pp. 1310–1318 [CrossRef].

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

FEM analysis of electrode assembly to validate the underlying assumption of WECS. (a) A montage with electrode assembly. (b) Even, partially uneven, and fully uneven current injection mode through metal rivets of an electrode assembly keeping total current constant. (c) A streamline current flow from each metal rivets under all three current injection conditions. (d) Current density observed at the scalp electrode interface. (e) An electric field distribution found in the brain target.

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