Special Section Technical Briefs

Simulation of Fatigue in Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Biomaterials1

[+] Author and Article Information
Michael S. Sacks

Center for Cardiovascular Simulation,
Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences,
Department of Biomedical Engineering,
The University of Texas at Austin,
201 East 24th St, Stop C0200,
Austin, TX 78712-1229

Accepted and presented at The Design of Medical Devices Conference (DMD2015), April 13–16, 2015, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Manuscript received March 3, 2015; final manuscript received March 17, 2015; published online July 16, 2015. Editor: Arthur Erdman.

J. Med. Devices 9(3), 030951 (Sep 01, 2015) (2 pages) Paper No: MED-15-1107; doi: 10.1115/1.4030581 History: Received March 03, 2015; Revised March 17, 2015; Online July 16, 2015

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Sacks, M. S., Mirnajafi, A., Sun, W., and Schmidt, P., 2006, “Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Heterograft Biomaterials: Structure, Mechanical Behavior and Computational Simulation,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices, 3(6), pp. 817–834. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sacks, M. S., 2003, “Incorporation of Experimentally-Derived Fiber Orientation Into a Structural Constitutive Model for Planar Collagenous Tissues,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 125(2), pp. 280–287. [CrossRef]
Sacks, M. S., and Sun, W., 2003, “Multiaxial Mechanical Behavior of Biological Materials,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng., 5, pp. 251–284. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sacks, M. S., 2003, “Biomechanics of Native and Engineered Heart Valve Tissues,” Functional Tissue Engineering, Spring-Verlag, New York.
Cheung, D. T., and Nimni, M. E., 1982, “Mechanism of Crosslinking of Proteins by Glutaraldehyde I: Reaction with Model Compounds,” Connect Tissue Res.10(2), pp. 187–199. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lemaitre, J., 1996, A Course on Damage Mechanics, 2nd ed., Springer-Verlag, New York.
Billiar, K., and Sacks, M., 1998, “Long-Term Mechanical Fatigue Response of Porcine Bioprosthetic Heart Valves,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IMECE-98), Anaheim, CA, Nov. 15–20.
Sun, W., Sacks, M. S., Sellaro, T. L., Slaughter, W. S., and Scott, M. J., 2003, “Biaxial Mechanical Response of Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Biomaterials to High In-Plane Shear,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 125(3), pp. 372–380. [CrossRef]
Sun, W., Sacks, M., Fulchiero, G., Lovekamp, J., Vyavahare, N., and Scott, M. J., 2004, “Response of Heterograft Heart Valve Biomaterials to Moderate Cyclic Loading,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A, 69A(4), pp. 658–669. [CrossRef]
Wells, S. M., and Sacks, M. S., 2000, “Effects of Stress-State During Fixation on the Fatigue Properties of Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Tissue,” Transactions of the Sixth World Biomaterials Congress, Kamuela, HI, May 15–20, Vol. 2, p. 794.
Wells, S. M., and Sacks, M. S., 2002, “Effects of Fixation Pressure on the Biaxial Mechanical Behavior of Porcine Bioprosthetic Heart Valves With Long-Term Cyclic Loading,” Biomaterials, 23(11), pp. 2389–2399. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wells, S. M., Sellaro, T., and Sacks, M. S., 2005, “Cyclic Loading Response of Bioprosthetic Heart Valves: Effects of Fixation Stress State on the Collagen Fiber Architecture,” Biomaterials, 26(15), pp. 2611–2619. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sellaro, T. L., Hildebrand, D., Lu, Q., Vyavahare, N., Scott, M., and Sacks, M. S., 2007, “Effects of Collagen Fiber Orientation on the Response of Biologically Derived Soft Tissue Biomaterials to Cyclic Loading,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A, 80A(1), pp. 194–205. [CrossRef]
Sacks, M. S., Smith, D. B., Pattany, P. M., and Schroeder, R., 1996, editors. Use of MRI to Reconstruct Fatigued Bioprosthetic Heart Valve 3D Geometry. Asaio; San Francisco: ASAIO.


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Fig. 1

A schematic of how EXL—GLUT. After from Cheung and Nimni, Connective Tissue Research, 1982 [5].

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Fig. 2

Overview of the entire model, showing the contributions from the cross-linked fibers and various interaction terms

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Fig. 3

In vitro cyclic loading data for GLUT-fixed bovine pericardium showing (a) the collagen fiber preferred direction groups (PD and XD), and (b)–(e) representative biaxial mechanical testing results, with • representing the 0 × 106 cycle level, □ the 20 × 106 cycle level, and Δ the 50 × 106 cycle level. The XD experienced substantially larger changes in extensibility compared to the PD group, as well a reversal in the direction greatest extensibility. This finding underscores the important role of fiber orientation in BHV issue fatigue behavior [13].

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Fig. 4

(Left) Studies of heart valve permanent set effects, which cause locations of focal curvature [14]. (Right) Current FE simulations showing our ability to simulate permanent set effects. Note that these effects are not due to loading but rather scission/rebonding (healing) of the cross-linked matrix.



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