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Research Papers

Flexure-Based Active Needle for Enhanced Steering Within Soft Tissue

[+] Author and Article Information
Naresh V. Datla

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Temple University,
1947 N 12th Street,
Philadelphia, PA 19122
e-mail: datla@mech.iitd.ac.in

Parsaoran Hutapea

Associate Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Temple University,
1947 N 12th Street,
Philadelphia, PA 19122
e-mail: hutapea@temple.edu

1Present address: Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India-110016.

Manuscript received November 18, 2014; final manuscript received May 1, 2015; published online August 6, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Rafael V. Davalos.

J. Med. Devices 9(4), 041005 (Aug 06, 2015) (6 pages) Paper No: MED-14-1267; doi: 10.1115/1.4030654 History: Received November 18, 2014

Flexible needles with enhanced steerability are desired in minimally invasive surgeries to reach target locations precisely and to bypass critical organs lying in the planned path. We have proposed a flexure-based active needle that enhances steerability by using a flexure element near the needle tip. Needle curvature is controlled by attached shape memory alloy (SMA) wires that apply actuator forces to bend the needle. Using actuator forces rather than axial rotation to control needle curvature minimizes placement errors due to torsional rigidity that is compromised by the flexure element. A prototype of the proposed needle was developed and was demonstrated in air, in tissue-mimicking gel, and in pig liver. Needle insertion studies with the prototype showed that increasing the wire diameter from 0.15 to 0.24 mm insignificantly affected the maximum needle tip deflection (19.4±0.3 mm for 150 mm insertion), but significantly increased the actuation current (from 0.60 to 1.04 A).

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of flexure-based active needle with connector and actuator

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Fig. 2

Needle insertion setup used to determine fracture toughness and study needle deflection

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Fig. 3

Prototype of the flexure-based active needle both (a) before, (b) after actuation in air, and (c) variation in the bent angle with applied current for three different actuator wire diameters

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Fig. 4

Comparison of the bent angle of the needle with 0.19 mm actuator wire when actuated in air and within PVC gel

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Fig. 5

(a) Shape of the flexure-based active needle after being inserted at 2.54 mm/s into PVC gel for 50 mm without actuation followed by 100 mm with actuation and (b) variation in the needle tip deflection with applied current for three different actuator wire diameters

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Fig. 6

(a) Flexure-based active needle after being inserted into ex vivo pig liver at 2.54 mm/s for 50 mm without actuation followed by 100 mm after actuation and (b) comparison of the needle tip deflection of the needle with 0.19 mm actuator wire when inserted in PVC gel and in ex vivo pig liver

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Fig. 7

Shape of the bevel-tipped needle with 45 deg bevel angle after being inserted 150 mm at 2.5 mm/s into PVC gel

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