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Research Papers

A Reconfigurable High-Speed Stereo-Radiography System for Sub-Millimeter Measurement of In Vivo Joint Kinematics

[+] Author and Article Information
John C. Ivester

Department of Mechanical
and Materials Engineering,
The University of Denver,
2390 S York Street,
Denver, CO 80208
e-mail: jiveste@gmail.com

Adam J. Cyr

Department of Mechanical
and Materials Engineering,
The University of Denver,
2390 S York Street,
Denver, CO 80208
e-mail: adam.j.cyr@du.edu

Michael D. Harris

Department of Mechanical
and Materials Engineering,
The University of Denver,
2390 S York Street,
Denver, CO 80208
e-mail: michael.d.harris@du.edu

Martin J. Kulis

Imaging Systems & Service, Inc.,
143 Burton Street,
Painesville, OH 44077
e-mail: mkulis@issi-na.com

Paul J. Rullkoetter

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical
and Materials Engineering,
The University of Denver,
2390 S York Street,
Denver, CO 80208
e-mail: paul.rullkoetter@du.edu

Kevin B. Shelburne

Department of Mechanical
and Materials Engineering,
The University of Denver,
2390 S York Street,
Denver, CO 80208
e-mail: kevin.shelburne@du.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 5, 2015; final manuscript received May 22, 2015; published online August 6, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Rita M. Patterson.

J. Med. Devices 9(4), 041009 (Aug 06, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: MED-15-1001; doi: 10.1115/1.4030778 History: Received January 05, 2015

Relative motions within normal and pathological joints of the human body can occur on the sub-millimeter and sub-degree scale. Dynamic radiography can be used to create a rapid sequence of images from which measurements of bone motion can be extracted, but available systems have limited speed and accuracy, limit normal subject movement, and do not easily integrate into existing traditional motion capture laboratories. A high-speed stereo radiography (HSSR) system is described that addresses these limitations. The custom radiography system was placed on a standalone reconfigurable gantry structure designed to allow freedom of subject movement while integrating into an existing motion capture laboratory. Validation of the system and measurement of knee kinematics of subjects during gait confirmed the ability to record joint motion with high accuracy and high-speed.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The HSSR system is comprised of the following subsystems: (a) X-ray source, (b) linear actuators, (c) mobile cart, and (d) image intensifiers

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The viewing volume is determined by the intersection of the conical X-ray beams from the two imaging planes, allowing simultaneous images from two perspectives to be obtained from the image intensifiers

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Side view of a single gantry and radiography plane, with isolated cart assembly and breakout view

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Constructed (left) and two part exploded (right) views of aluminum turret built to carry each XII. The turret allows pitch and yaw positioning to facilitate a broad range of viewing angles.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Constructed (a) and exploded (b) views of the X-ray source stage

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Photographs of the (a) mesh, (b) calibration cube, and (c) knee phantom on top of the translational stages in the HSSR volume. The mesh parallel to the face of the image intensifiers allow for distortion correction of the radiographs. The calibration cube is comprised of 52 radio-opaque beads with precisely known relative coordinates.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Pilot subject during recording simultaneous HSSR, marker-based video motion capture, and ground force (left). Tracking was achieved with frame-by-frame matching of a reconstruction from the subject's bones to the recorded stereo X-ray images (right).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Average knee rotations and anterior translation for eight subjects during the stance phase of gait. Shaded region represents plus and minus one standard deviation.

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