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Technical Brief

Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis Preventive Nose Plugs: Prophylaxis Against Naegleria fowleri

[+] Author and Article Information
Abdul Mannan Baig

Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences,
Aga Khan University,
Karachi 74200, Pakistan
e-mail: abdul.mannan@aku.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received July 5, 2015; final manuscript received November 10, 2015; published online January 6, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Rafael V. Davalos.

J. Med. Devices 10(1), 014501 (Jan 06, 2016) (3 pages) Paper No: MED-15-1214; doi: 10.1115/1.4032106 History: Received July 05, 2015; Revised November 10, 2015

Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba; it is a protist pathogen that is known to cause a fatal encephalitis in humans known as “primary amoebic meningoencephalitis” (PAM). The peak season for the cases admitted to the hospital is in the summers, and all the reported cases have a history of exposure to the warm waters. Mostly, PAM is reported in recent swimmers and people who perform ablution and/or nasal cleansing. Much has been done for vaccination and treatment without any success in past 60 years, but the mortality has remained 99%. Here, we propose a prophylaxis for this disease by introducing a device “Naegleriopel.” This device is noninvasive and requires insertion into the nostrils at times of swimming or water sports related activities. This device, made up of synthetic plastic or silicone, could be adapted to the contours of the interior of the nose. It is expected to reduce the sporadic and seasonal incidences of PAM.

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References

Schuster, F. L. , and Visvesvara, G. S. , 2004, “ Free-Living Amoebae as Opportunistic and Non-Opportunistic Pathogens of Humans and Animals,” Int. J. Parasitol., 34(9), pp. 1001–1027. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Visvesvara, G. S. , 2010, “ Amoebic Meningoencephalitis and Keratitis: Challenges in Diagnosis and Treatment,” Curr. Opin. Infect Dis., 23(6), pp. 590–594. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Baig, A. M. , and Khan, N. A. , 2015, “ Tackling Infection Owing to Brain-Eating Amoeba,” Acta Trop., 142, pp. 86–88. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kim, J. H. , Sohn, H. J. , Lee, J. , Yang, H. J. , Chwae, Y. J. , Kim, K. , Park, S. , and Shin, H. J. , 2013, “ Vaccination With Lentiviral Vector Expressing the nfa1 Gene Confers a Protective Immune Response to Mice Infected With Naegleria fowleri,” Clin. Vaccine Immunol., 20(7), pp. 1055–1060. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Baig, A. M. , and Khan, N. A. , 2014, “ Novel Chemotherapeutic Strategies in the Management of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis Due to Naegleria fowleri,” CNS Neurosci Ther., 20(3), pp. 289–290. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Baig, A. M. , Kulsoom, H. , and Khan, N. A. , 2014, “ Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis: Amoebicidal Effects of Clinically Approved Drugs Against Naegleria fowleri,” J. Med. Microbiol., 63(Pt 5), pp. 760–762. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kemble, S. K. , Lynfield, R. , DeVries, A. S. , Drehner, D. M. , Pomputius, W. F., III , Beach, M. J. , Visvesvara, G. S. , da Silva, A. J. , Hill, V. R. , Yoder, J. S. , Xiao, L. , Smith, K. E. , and Danila, R. , 2012, “ Fatal Naegleria fowleri Infection Acquired in Minnesota: Possible Expanded Range of a Deadly Thermophilic Organism,” Clin. Infect. Dis., 54(6), pp. 805–809. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Baig, A. M. , 2015, “ Pathogenesis of Amoebic Encephalitis: Are the Amoebae Being Credited to an ‘Inside Job’ Done by the Host Immune Response?,” Acta Trop., 148, pp. 72–76. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
CDC, 2010, “ Swimming Prevention and Control,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/naegleria/swimming.html, accessed Sept. 13, 2015.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Proposed Naegleriopel (nasal plug) design for prevention of PAM caused by Naegleria fowleri. In contrast to nose clips, this device could be more cosmetically acceptable and compliant for the users.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Device design components and mounting of Naegleriopel. The flexible central component has a bilaterally mounted nasal clog that would be stuffed with cotton soaked in the drug mixed gel or by the gel itself. The “Naegleriopel plus” could use a frame to mount the clogs as shown.

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