0
Research Papers

Development of a Variable Stiffness Over Tube Based on Low-Melting-Point-Alloy for Endoscopic Surgery

[+] Author and Article Information
Ruzhen Zhao

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical
Systems and Vibration,
Institute of Biomedical Manufacturing and
Life Quality Engineering,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dong Chuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: deep-dimples@sjtu.edu.cn

Yao Yao

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical
Systems and Vibration,
Institute of Biomedical Manufacturing and
Life Quality Engineering,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dong Chuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: yaoyaorz@sjtu.edu.cn

Yun Luo

State Key Laboratory of
Mechanical Systems and Vibration,
Institute of Biomedical Manufacturing and
Life Quality Engineering,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dong Chuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: luoyun@sjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received April 27, 2015; final manuscript received February 1, 2016; published online May 12, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Rafael V. Davalos.

J. Med. Devices 10(2), 021002 (May 12, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: MED-15-1173; doi: 10.1115/1.4032813 History: Received April 27, 2015; Revised February 01, 2016

Instruments used in endoscopic surgery (colonoscopy surgery or natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES)) are flexible to be advanced in human body. However, when the end of the instrument reaches the target, the instrument should be rigid enough to hold its shape against external forces for better surgical accuracy. In order to obtain these two properties, a variable stiffness over tube based on low-melting-point-alloy (LMPA) is proposed in this paper. The structure exploits the phase transformation property of the LMPA which enables the stiffness change of the over tube by heating and cooling. A prototype was fabricated using a special molding method, and experiments were carried out to evaluate its variable stiffness property and response characteristics. According to experimental results, it costs 17 s to make the over tube transform from rigid state to flexible state and 18 s to make the over tube transform from flexible state to rigid state. The experimental results also indicated that the over tube is very rigid in rigid state and flexible in compliant state. A heat insulation layer was assembled to prevent human tissue from thermal damage. The temperature of the outer wall of the over tube was 42.5 °C when hot water of 80 °C was pumped into the over tube continually with the help of the heat insulation layer.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Topics: Stiffness , Surgery
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Tsui, C. , Klein, R. , and Garabrant, M. , 2013, “ Minimally Invasive Surgery: National Trends in Adoption and Future Directions for Hospital Strategy,” Surg. Endoscopy, 27(7), pp. 2253–2257. [CrossRef]
Flora, E. D. , Wilson, T. G. , Martin, I. J. , O'Rourke, N. A. , and Maddern, G. J. , 2008, “ A Review of Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) for Intra-Abdominal Surgery: Experimental Models, Techniques, and Applicability to the Clinical Setting,” Ann. Surg., 247(4), pp. 583–602. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Haber, G. P. , Crouzet, S. , Kamoi, K. , Berger, A. , Aron, M. , Goel, R. , Canes, D. , Desai, M. , Gill, I. S. , and Kaouk, J. H. , 2008, “ Robotic NOTES (Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery) in Reconstructive Urology: Initial Laboratory Experience,” Urology, 71(6), pp. 996–1000. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Abbott, D. J. , Becke, C. , Rothstein, R. I. , and Peine, W. J. , 2007, “ Design of an Endoluminal NOTES Robotic System,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2007), San Diego, CA, Oct. 27-Nov. 2, pp. 410–416.
Loeve, A. J. , Breedveld, P. , and Dankelman, J. , 2010, “ Scopes too Flexible ... and too Stiff,” Pulse IEEE, 1(3), pp. 26–41. [CrossRef]
Ponsky, J. L. , 2006, “ Endoluminal Surgery: Past, Present, and Future,” Surg. Endoscopy, 20(Suppl. 2), pp. S500–502. [CrossRef]
Baillie, J. , 2007, “ The Endoscope,” Gastrointest. Endoscopy, 65(6), pp. 886–893. [CrossRef]
Simaan, N. , 2005, “ Snake-Like Units Using Flexible Backbones and Actuation Redundancy for Enhanced Miniaturization,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2005), Barcelona, Spain, Apr. 18-22, pp. 3012–3017.
Xu, K. , and Simaan, N. , 2010, “ Analytic Formulation for Kinematics, Statics, and Shape Restoration of Multibackbone Continuum Robots Via Elliptic Integrals,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 2(1), p. 011006. [CrossRef]
Giataganas, P. , Evangeliou, N. , Koveos, Y. , Kelasidi, E. , and Tzes, A. , 2011, “ Design and Experimental Evaluation of an Innovative SMA-Based Tendon-Driven Redundant Endoscopic Robotic Surgical Tool,” IEEE 19th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (MED), Corfu, Greece, June 20-23, pp. 1071–1075.
Chen, G. , Pham, M. T. , Maalej, T. , Fourati, H. , Moreau, R. , and Sesmat, S. , 2010, “ A Biomimetic Steering Robot for Minimally Invasive Surgery Application,” E. Hall, ed., Advances in Robot Manipulators, InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, pp. 1–25.
Abadie, J. , Chaillet, N. , and Lexcellent, C. , 2009, “ Modeling of a New SMA Micro-Actuator for Active Endoscopy Applications,” Mechatronics, 19(4), pp. 437–442. [CrossRef]
Church, J. , and Delaney, C. , 2003, “ Randomized, Controlled Trial of Carbon Dioxide Insufflation During Colonoscopy,” Dis. Colon Rectum, 46(3), pp. 322–326. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Cotton, P. B. , Williams, C. B. , Hawes, R. H. , and Saunders, B. P. , 2008, Practical Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: The Fundamentals, 6th ed., Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, UK.
Hawes, R. H. , Rattner, D. W. , Fleischer, D. , Gostout, C. J. , Kalloo, A. , Kochman, M. , Marohn, M. , Ponsky, J. , Rothstein, R. , Schwaitzberg, S. , Smith, C. D. , Swanstrom, L. , Talamini, M. , and Thompson, C. C. , 2008, “ NOTES™: Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going?” Gastrointest. Endoscopy, 67(6), pp. 779–780. [CrossRef]
Rex, D. K. , Khashab, M. , Raju, G. S. , Pasricha, J. , and Kozarek, R. , 2005, “ Insertability and Safety of a Shape-Locking Device for Colonoscopy,” Am. J. Gastroenterol., 100(4), pp. 817–820. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Thompson, C. C. , Ryou, M. , Soper, N. J. , Hungess, E. S. , Rothstein, R. I. , and Swanstrom, L. L. , 2009, “ Evaluation of a Manually Driven, Multitasking Platform for Complex Endoluminal and Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic surgery Applications,” Gastrointest. Endoscopy, 70(1), pp. 121–125. [CrossRef]
Yagi, A. , Matsumiya, K. , Masamune, K. , Liao, H. , and Dohi, T. , 2006, “ Rigid-Flexible Outer Sheath Model Using Slider Linkage Locking Mechanism and Air Pressure for Endoscopic Surgery,” Med. Image Comput. Comput. Assist. Interv., 9(Pt. 1), pp. 503–510. [PubMed]
Zuo, S. , Yamanaka, N. , Sato, I. , Masamune, K. , Liao, H. , Matsumiya, K. , and Dohi, T. , 2008, “ MRI-Compatible Rigid and Flexible Outer Sheath Device With Pneumatic Locking Mechanism for Minimally Invasive Surgery,” Medical Imaging and Augmented Reality, Springer, Berlin, pp. 210–219.
Kim, Y. J. , Cheng, S. , Kim, S. , and Iagnemma, K. , 2013, “ A Novel Layer Jamming Mechanism With Tunable Stiffness Capability for Minimally Invasive Surgery,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 29(4), pp. 1031–1042. [CrossRef]
Ou, J. , Yao, L. , Tauber, D. , Steimle, J. , Niiyama, R. , and Ishii, H. , 2014, “ JamSheets: Thin Interfaces With Tunable Stiffness Enabled by Layer Jamming,” 8th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded and Embodied Interaction (TEI 2014), Munich, Germany, Feb. 16-19, pp. 65–72.
Loeve, A. J. , Plettenburg, D. H. , Breedveld, P. , and Dankelman, J. , 2012, “ Endoscope Shaft-Rigidity Control Mechanism: ‘FORGUIDE’,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 59(2), pp. 542–551. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Amend, J. R. , Brown, E. M. , Rodenberg, N. , Jaeger, H. M. , and Lipson, H. , 2012, “ A Positive Pressure Universal Gripper Based on the Jamming of Granular Material,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 28(2), pp. 341–350. [CrossRef]
Loeve, A. J. , van de Ven, O. S. , Vogel, J. G. , Breedveld, P. , and Dankelman, J. , 2010, “ Vacuum Packed Particles as Flexible Endoscope Guides With Controllable Rigidity,” Granular Matter, 12(6), pp. 543–554. [CrossRef]
Ranzani, T. , Cianchetti, M. , Gerponi, G. , Falco, I. D. , Petroni, G. , and Menciassi, A. , 2013, “ A Modular Soft Manipulator With Variable Stiffness,” 3rd Joint Workshop on New Technologies for Computer/Robot Assisted Surgery (CRAS), Verona, Italy, Sept. 11-13.
Dong, H. , and Walker, G. M. , 2012, “ Adjustable Stiffness Tubes Via Thermal Modulation of a Low Melting Point Polymer,” Smart Mater. Struct., 21(4), p. 042001. [CrossRef]
Loeve, A. J. , Bosma, J. H. , Breedveld, P. , Dodou, D. , and Dankelman, J. , 2010, “ Polymer Rigidity Control for Endoscopic Shaft-Guide ‘Plastolock’—A Feasibility Study,” ASME J. Med. Dev., 4(4), p. 045001. [CrossRef]
Bardaro, S. J. , and Swanström, L. , 2006, “ Development of Advanced Endoscopes for Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES),” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol., 15(6), pp. 378–383.
USGI Medical, 2012, “  Transport ® Endoscopic Access Device—Retroflex,” USGI Medical, San Clemente, CA, www.usgimedical.com/eos/components-transport.htm
Zhao, R. Z. , Zhao, S. , and Luo, Y. , 2014, “ Development of a Flexible and Stiffness Changeable Mechanism for NOTES,” Int. J. Appl. Electromagn. Mech., 45(1), pp. 825–831.
Schubert, B. E. , and Floreano, D. , 2013, “ Variable Stiffness Material Based on Rigid Low-Melting-Point-Alloy Microstructures Embedded in Soft Poly (Dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS),” RSC Adv., 3(46), pp. 24671–24679. [CrossRef]
Shan, W. L. , Lu, T. , and Majidi, C. , 2013, “ Soft-Matter Composites With Electrically Tunable Elastic Rigidity,” Smart Mater. Struct. 22(8), p. 085005. [CrossRef]
Nakai, H. , Kuniyoshi, Y. , Inaba, M. , and Inoue, H. , 2002, “ Metamorphic Robot Made of Low Melting Point Alloy,” Intelligent Robots and Systems IEEE/RSJ International Conference, Tokyo University, Tokyo, Japan, Vol. 2, pp. 2025–2030.
Wikipedia, 2015, “ Wood's Metal,” available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood's_metal
Ge, H. , Li, H. , Mei, S. , and Liu, J. , 2013, “ Low Melting Point Liquid Metal as a New Class of Phase Change Material: An Emerging Frontier in Energy Area,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 21, pp. 331–346. [CrossRef]
Yamanaka, H. , Makiyama, K. , Osaka, K. , Nagasaka, M. , Ogata, M. , Yamada, T. , and Kubota, Y. , 2015, “ Measurement of the Physical Properties During Laparoscopic Surgery Performed on Pigs by Using Forceps With Pressure Sensors,” Adv. Urol., 2015, p. 495308. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Elastic modulus measurement of Cerrolow 117 using tensile test: (a) experimental setup and (b) stress–strain curve

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Dimension of the Cerrolow 117-tension test specimen

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Illustration of the variable stiffness over tube

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of flexibility and passive bending effects for surgery with flexible endoscope. Endoscope buckling and excessive squeeze to body cavity inner wall occurred when forces were applied to push (a) or pull (b) lesion tissue.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Molding process of a segment of the variable stiffness over tube

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

An experimental setup for measuring the flexural stiffness (a) and the axial stiffness (b) of the over tube under rigid state

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

An experimental setup for measuring the deflection of the over tube during state transformation process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

An experimental setup for measuring transformation times between rigid and flexible state

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Evaluation results of the flexural stiffness of the over tube under compliant state

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Evaluation results of the flexural stiffness (a) and the axial stiffness (b) of the over tube under rigid state

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Evaluation results of the transformation time between rigid state and flexible state: (a) from rigid state to compliant state and (b) from compliant state to rigid state

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Experimental setup for evaluation of the effectiveness of the heat insulation layer

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Evaluation results of the effectiveness of the heat insulation layer

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Evaluation results of the deflection of the over tube during phase transformation process: (a) deflection of the over tube when the water temperature rose from 37 °C to 50 °C and (b) deflection of the over tube when the water temperature was set to 50 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

The water temperature controlled course

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In