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Technical Brief

Analysis and Evaluation of a Robotic Trephination in Penetrating Keratoplasty

[+] Author and Article Information
Peng Su

School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation,
Beihang University,
Beijing 100191, China
e-mail: andry@163.com

Shijing Deng

Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology,
Beijing Tongren Eye Center,
Capital Medical University,
Beijing 100005, China
e-mail: dengsj26@163.com

Long Huang

School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation,
Beihang University,
Beijing 100191, China
e-mail: huanlongiu@126.com

Yanming Song

School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation,
Beihang University,
Beijing 100191, China
e-mail: sym0823@163.com

Xiaoyu Liu

Key Laboratory for Biomechanics and Mechanobiology
of Ministry of Education,
School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering,
Beihang University,
Beijing 100191, China
e-mail: x.y.liu@buaa.edu.cn

Yang Yang

School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation,
Beihang University,
Beijing 100191, China
e-mail: yang_mech@126.com

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 7, 2015; final manuscript received February 19, 2016; published online May 12, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Carl Nelson.

J. Med. Devices 10(2), 024503 (May 12, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: MED-15-1254; doi: 10.1115/1.4032869 History: Received September 07, 2015; Revised February 19, 2016

It is difficult to achieve a stably delicate operation in manual microsurgery, and the aim of this paper is to evaluate the robotic trephination that can open a promising perspective for the development of robotic microsurgical system for keratoplasty. A robot for corneal trephination integrating a force/torque sensor is designed based on manual trephine action. The manual experiments and the robotic experiments about penetrating trephination are performed in porcine eyes. The expected values of operational parameters that are references to the robotic trephination are obtained from the manual experiments using probability density functions (PDFs), including linear velocity, angular velocity, and rotating angle. Considering the meanings of the forces/torques, the results of the manual and robotic experiments such as trephine forces/torques and photomicrographs are compared to evaluate the effectiveness of robotic trephination. The manual trephination shows some randomness and this leads to large fluctuations in the trephine forces/torques during the surgery, but the robot may improve overall outcome of the graft, as it is able to carry out the operation stably and produce a uniform cutting margin. There is potential to improve the biomechanical properties in the delicate microsurgery by using the trephine robot and such devices can assist the surgeon to achieve a consistently high-quality result.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The experimental system of robotic trephination

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Fig. 2

The flow chart of control system

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Fig. 3

The experiment system of manual trephination

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Fig. 5

The experimental results of the manual penetrating trephination: (a) the relationship between the rotating angle and time in the rotary cutting motion, (b) and (c) change curves of vertical trephine force Fz and torque Tz, and (d) and (e) the experimental results of horizontal trephine forces Fxy and torques Txy

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Fig. 6

The experimental results of the robotic penetrating trephination: (a) and (b) the experimental curves of the vertical trephine torque Tz and (d) and (e) the results of horizontal trephine forces Fxy and torques Txy

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Fig. 7

The results of the experiments with faster speed: (a) and (b) the vertical trephine forces and torques obtained in manual trephination, respectively; and (c) and (d) the forces and the torques obtained in robotics trephination

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Fig. 8

Photomicrographs obtained at an original magnification of 40 × and 100 × : (a) and (b) photos of the corneal sample slice in Figs. 4 and 5 and (c) and (d) photos of the manual experiment and robotic experiment in Fig. 6

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