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Special Section Technical Briefs

Three-Dimensional Printed Patient Specific Ptosis Crutches as a Nonsurgical Solution for Elevating Upper Eyelids in Myasthenia Gravis Patients1

[+] Author and Article Information
Megan Findlay

Medical Devices Laboratory,
Division of Biomedical Engineering,
Department of Human Biology,
Faculty of Health Sciences,
University of Cape Town,
Cape Town 7925, South Africa

Jeannine M. Heckmann

Division of Neurology,
Department of Medicine,
University of Cape Town,
Cape Town 7925, South Africa

Sudesh Sivarasu

Medical Devices Laboratory,
Division of Biomedical Engineering,
Department of Human Biology,
Faculty of Health Sciences,
University of Cape Town,
Cape Town 7925, South Africa
e-mail: Sudesh.sivarasu@uct.ac.za

DOI: 10.1115/1.4033225Manuscript received March 1, 2016; final manuscript received March 17, 2016; published online May 12, 2016. Editor: William Durfee.

J. Med. Devices 10(2), 020929 (May 12, 2016) (3 pages) Paper No: MED-16-1165; doi: 10.1115/1.4033225 History: Received March 01, 2016; Revised March 17, 2016

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References

Mombaur, B. , Lesosky, M. R. , Liebenberg, L. , Vreede, H. , and Heckmann, J. M. , 2015, “ Incidence of Acetylcholine Receptor-Antibody-Positive Myasthenia Gravis in South Africa,” Muscle Nerve, 51(4), pp. 533–537. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Pruitt, J. A. , and Ilsen, P. F. , 2010, “ On the Frontline: What an Optometrist Needs to Know About Myasthenia Gravis,” Optom.-J. Am. Optom. Assoc., 81(9), pp. 454–460. [CrossRef]
Phillips, L. H. , 2003, “ The Epidemiology of Myasthenia Gravis,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 998(1), pp. 407–412. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Heckmann, J. M. , Owen, E. P. , and Little, F. , 2007, “ Myasthenia Gravis in South Africans: Racial Differences in Clinical Manifestations,” Neuromuscular Disord., 17(11), pp. 929–934. [CrossRef]
Heckmann, J. M. , Hansen, P. , Van Toorn, R. , Lubbe, E. , van Rensburg, E. J. , and Wilmshurst, J. , 2012, “ The Characteristics of Juvenile Myasthenia Gravis Among South Africans,” S. Afr. Med. J., 102(6), pp. 532–536. [PubMed]
Sudhakar, P. , Vu, Q. , Kosoko-Lasaki, O. , and Palmer, M. , 2009, “ Upper Eyelid Ptosis Revisited,” Am. J. Clin. Med., 6(3), pp. 5–14.
Mutsvangwa, T. E. , Smit, J. , Hoyme, H. E. , Kalberg, W. , Viljoen, D. L. , Meintjes, E. M. , and Douglas, T. S. , 2009, “ Design, Construction, and Testing of a Stereo-Photogrammetric Tool for the Diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Infants,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging, 28(9), pp. 1448–1458. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bekerman, I. , Gottlieb, P. , and Vaiman, M. , 2014, “ Variations in Eyeball Diameters of the Healthy Adults,” J. Ophthalmol., 2014, p. 503645. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Atchison, D. A. , Jones, C. E. , Schmid, K. L. , Pritchard, N. , Pope, J. M. , Strugnell, W. E. , and Riley, R. A. , 2004, “ Eye Shape in Emmetropia and Myopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci., 45(10), pp. 3380–3386. [CrossRef]
Berman, B. , 2012, “ 3-D Printing: The New Industrial Revolution,” Bus. Horiz., 55(2), pp. 155–162. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Photographs illustrating the current eyelid position (a) and the palpebral fissure width (b) of two MG patients (photographs used with permission from patients)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

A CAD model of the ptosis crutch for the right eye. The crutch bar (a), the housing (b), and the attachment to the glasses arm (c). The arrows indicate the direction of adjustment.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

A photograph of the ptosis crutch attached to the superior border of the spectacle temple. The ptosis crutch housing has a slide mechanism to adjust for globe protrusion.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

A photograph of the ptosis crutch elevating the upper eyelid to clear the visual axis

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