Special Section Technical Briefs

Design and Modeling of a Passive Hydraulic Device for Muscle Spasticity Simulation1

[+] Author and Article Information
Jiahui Liang, Randy H. Ewoldt, Elizabeth T. Hsiao-Wecksler

Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign,
Champaign, IL 61801

Steven R. Tippett

Department of Physical Therapy,
Bradley University,
Peoria, IL 61625

DOI: 10.1115/1.4033247Manuscript received March 1, 2016; final manuscript received March 17, 2016; published online May 12, 2016. Editor: William Durfee.

J. Med. Devices 10(2), 020954 (May 12, 2016) (2 pages) Paper No: MED-16-1175; doi: 10.1115/1.4033247 History: Received March 01, 2016; Revised March 17, 2016

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NIH, 2011, “ NINDS Spasticity Information Page,” National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD, http://www.ninds.nih.gov/
Bohannon, R. W. , and Smith, M. B. , 1987, “ Interrater Reliability of a Modified Ashworth Scale of Muscle Spasticity,” Phys. Ther., 67(2), pp. 206–207. [PubMed]
Pandyan, A. D. , Johnson, G. R. , Price, C. I. , Curless, R. H. , Barnes, M. P. , and Rodgers, H. , 1999, “ A Review of the Properties and Limitations of the Ashworth and Modified Ashworth Scales as Measures of Spasticity,” Clin. Rehabil., 13(5), pp. 373–383. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Park, H. S. , Kim, J. , and Damiano, D. L. , 2012, “ Development of a Haptic Elbow Spasticity Simulator (HESS) for Improving Accuracy and Reliability of Clinical Assessment of Spasticity,” IEEE Trans. Neural Sys. Rehabil. Eng., 20(3), pp. 361–370. [CrossRef]
Lee, H. M. , Huang, Y. Z. , Chen, J. J. , and Hwang, I. S. , 2002, “ Quantitative Analysis of the Velocity Related Pathophysiology of Spasticity and Rigidity in the Elbow Flexors,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 72(5), pp. 621–629. [CrossRef] [PubMed]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Qualitative description [2] and high level graphical interpretation of MAS describing degree of spasticity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Rendered image of the forearm simulator with an embedded hydraulic device

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Overview of the cylinder–piston system and forces acting on the piston assembly. (b) Geometry of the piston assembly and flow pathways within the device.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Components of the hydraulic device. (b) Preliminary prototype of the device with a blank piston disk and cover plate.



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