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Review Article

A Review of Therapeutic Ablation Modalities

[+] Author and Article Information
Ashish Singal

Department of Biomedical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
420 Delaware Street SE,
B172 Mayo Building, MMC 195,
Minneapolis, MN 55455
e-mail: singa009@umn.edu

John R. Ballard

Medical Devices Center,
University of Minnesota,
420 Delaware Street SE,
G217 Mayo Building, MMC 95,
Minneapolis, MN 55455
e-mail: ball0250@umn.edu

Eric N. Rudie

Rudie Consulting LLC,
18466 Gladstone Boulevard,
Maple Grove, MN 55311
e-mail: erudie@rudieconsulting.com

Erik N. K. Cressman

Department of Interventional Radiology,
MD Anderson Cancer Center,
FCT 14.6012 Unit 1471,
1400 Pressler Street,
Houston, TX 77030
e-mail: ECressman@mdanderson.org

Paul A. Iaizzo

Mem. ASME
Department of Surgery,
University of Minnesota,
420 Delaware Street SE,
B172 Mayo, MMC 195,
Minneapolis, MN 55455
e-mail: iaizz001@umn.edu

Manuscript received July 1, 2014; final manuscript received May 12, 2016; published online August 5, 2016. Assoc. Editor: William Durfee.

J. Med. Devices 10(4), 040801 (Aug 05, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: MED-14-1201; doi: 10.1115/1.4033876 History: Received July 01, 2014; Revised May 12, 2016

Understanding basic science and technical aspects is essential for scientists and engineers to develop and enhance ablative modalities, and for clinicians to effectively apply therapeutic ablative techniques. An overview of ablative modalities, anatomical locations, and indications for which ablations are performed is presented. Specifically, basic concepts, parameter selection, and underlying biophysics of tissue injury of five currently used therapeutic ablative modalities are reviewed: radiofrequency ablation (RFA), cryoablation (CRA), microwave ablation (MWA), high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and chemical ablation (CHA) (ablative agents: acetic acid, ethanol, hypertonic sodium chloride, and urea). Each ablative modality could be refined for expanding applications, either independently or in combination, for future therapeutic use.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

List of anatomical locations where ablations are performed, disease condition, and the ablation modalities used. AF = atrial fibrillation, AVN = atrioventricular node, BPH = benign prostatic hyperplasia, Cryo = cryoablation, HCC = hepatocellular carcinoma, HIFU = high-intensity focused ultrasound, HTN = hypertension, IRE = irreversible electroporation, MWA = microwave ablation, OCD = obsessive compulsive disorder, PDT = photodynamic therapy, RFA = radiofrequency ablation, SND = sinus node dysfunction, SVT = supraventricular tachycardia, and VT = ventricular tachycardia.

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