Technical Brief

A Force Measurement System for Training of Arthroscopic Tissue Manipulation Skills on Cadaveric Specimen

[+] Author and Article Information
T. Horeman, G. J. M. Tuijthof

Department of Biomechanical Engineeering,
Delft University of Technology,
Delft 2628 CD, The Netherlands;
Academic Medical Centre,
Amsterdam 2628 CD, The Netherlands

P. B. Wulms

Department of Biomechanical Engineeering,
Delft University of Technology,
Delft 2628 CD, The Netherlands

G. M. M. J. Kerkhoffs, R. M. Gerards

Academic Medical Centre,
Amsterdam 1105 AZ, The Netherlands

M. Karahan

School of Medicine,
Acibadem University,
Ataşehir, İstanbul 34758, Turkey

Manuscript received January 20, 2016; final manuscript received June 13, 2016; published online September 12, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Carl Nelson.

J. Med. Devices 10(4), 044508 (Sep 12, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: MED-16-1011; doi: 10.1115/1.4034145 History: Received January 20, 2016; Revised June 13, 2016

To improve arthroscopic skills, the preferred means of training is cadaveric tissue, because this gives the most realistic scenario. A drawback of cadaveric training is that objective performance tracking and accompanied feedback cannot be provided due to the absence of a suitable system. The main criteria were that the system should be compatible with any cadaveric joint, be used with any type of instrument, easy to set up, and measure two critical parameters that reflect the task efficiency (task time) and safety (forces due to instrument–tissue interaction). This resulted in the development of a force measurement system which consists of a custom-made universal vice, a custom-designed six degree-of-freedom (DOF) force measurement table (FMT) coupled to a computer equipped with customized software to record the time and forces in all directions. The FMT was calibrated and able to measure forces in the range of 0–750 N, with an accuracy of 0.1 N. During two cadaveric training courses, measurements were performed with the FMT. It was observed that the acquired force data could discriminate between novices and experts or reflect a certain phase of a navigation task performed in a cadaveric cow and human knee. A distinct phase highlighted from the force measurements is the insufficient joint stressing of novices during navigation. This results in too small a joint space for inspection and forces the novices to readjust the stressing. As forces cannot be seen, the FMT can contribute to more efficient training by providing explicit cues on the exerted loads during training. This enables a more precise supervision of the trainees.

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Fig. 1

The prototype of the FMT for training on cadaver specimen. A: support for bone vice. B: fixation plate that allows fixation of the setup to the operation table.

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Fig. 2

Location of the bending beams with Hall effect sensors and magnets in the x-, y-, and z-plane of the FMT

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Fig. 3

Picture of one bending beam in the z-plane of the FMT loaded to its maximum. At the location where the magnet and Hall sensor are integrated in the upper square and the bending beam, respectively, the deflection is measured. Lower left corner: Schematic illustration of the bending beam with relevant dimensions for stiffness calculation.

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Fig. 7

Test setup that highlights the masses of 20 g that were used to determine the sensitivity of the FMT

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Fig. 6

Top view of the fixation points (encircled) and the directions used to test the FMT while loaded with masses of 10 kg (arrows)

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Fig. 5

Graph of the relation between the sensor–magnet distance and the output voltage of the Hall effect sensor

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Fig. 4

User interface that allows simultaneous recording of up to six USB camera views

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Fig. 8

Top: A human cadaver knee joint is fixated with its femur in the vice of FMT. Additional pins are drilled through the vice to secure the fixation. Below: A cow knee joint is fixated with its femur in the vice of FMT without extra pins, since no leg stressing is required.

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Fig. 9

Force graph of well-performed navigation task

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Fig. 10

Force graph of navigation task in which the participant was not able to insert the instrument in the lateral compartment. The result is high force fluctuations in the Z-direction.

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Fig. 11

Force graph of navigation task in which the initial leg stressing was too low. As a consequence, readjustment of the leg was required to increase the leg stress and increase the working space in the medial compartment.

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Fig. 12

Force graph of navigation task in which the participant used a trocar to puncture the tissue layers before he could enter the lateral compartment with the camera

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Fig. 13

Force graph of a highly unsuccessful navigation task. The arrows indicate the points in which the Fxfilt varies between negative and positive values; and the leg is not stressed as required.



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