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Research Papers

A Novel Approach to Design Lesion-Specific Stents for Minimum Recoil

[+] Author and Article Information
Muhammad Farhan Khan

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical,
Materials and Manufacturing Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
University of Nottingham,
University Park,
Nottingham NG72RD, UK
e-mail: eaxmfk@nottingham.ac.uk

David Brackett

Department of Mechanical,
Materials and Manufacturing Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
University of Nottingham,
University Park,
Nottingham NG72RD, UK
e-mail: David.Brackett@the-mtc.org

Ian Ashcroft

Professor
Department of Mechanical,
Materials and Manufacturing Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
University of Nottingham,
University Park,
Nottingham NG72RD, UK
e-mail: Ian.Ashcroft@nottingham.ac.uk

Christopher Tuck

Professor
Department of Mechanical,
Materials and Manufacturing Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
University of Nottingham,
University Park,
Nottingham NG72RD, UK
e-mail: Christopher.Tuck@nottingham.ac.uk

Ricky Wildman

Professor
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
University of Nottingham,
University Park,
Nottingham NG72RD, UK
e-mail: ricky.wildman@nottingham.ac.uk

1Present address: The Manufacturing Technology Centre, Pilot Way, Ansty Business Park, Coventry CV7 9JU, UK.

2Corresponding author.

Manuscript received October 10, 2015; final manuscript received September 12, 2016; published online December 21, 2016. Assoc. Editor: John LaDisa.

J. Med. Devices 11(1), 011001 (Dec 21, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: MED-15-1278; doi: 10.1115/1.4034880 History: Received October 10, 2015; Revised September 12, 2016

Stent geometries are obtained by topology optimization for minimized compliance under different stenosis levels and plaque material types. Three levels of stenosis by cross-sectional area, i.e., 30%, 40%, and 50% and three different plaque material properties, i.e., calcified, cellular, and hypocellular, were studied. The raw optimization results were converted to clear design concepts and their performance was evaluated by implanting them in their respective stenosed artery types using finite element analysis. The results were compared with a generic stent in similar arteries, which showed that the new designs showed less recoil. This work provides a concept that stents could be tailored to specific lesions in order to minimize recoil and maintain a patent lumen in stenotic arteries.

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Figures

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Fig. 2

Proposed approach to design lesion-specific stents

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Fig. 3

Artery models with plaque types used for the analyses (XZ plane cut view)

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Fig. 4

Generic stent used for comparison

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Fig. 5

Maximum radial displacement of plaque tip in the artery with five different meshes

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Fig. 6

Relative position of cylinder and 40% stenotic artery before contact (artery sliced for illustration purpose)

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Fig. 7

Contour plot showing radially inward nodal load (N) variation on one of the nine design spaces for stent topology optimization based on cylinder–artery contact with 50% calcified stenosis (a), discrete load contour plot unwrapped from cylindrical shape for illustration purpose showing axial (X) and circumferential (ϴ) directions (b)

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Fig. 8

Stent topology optimization density distribution results for (a–c) 30%, (d–f) 40% and (g–i) 50% stenosis for calcified, cellular, and hypocellular plaque types, respectively (results of axial-stent-half unwrapped from cylindrical shape for illustration purpose)

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Fig. 9

Stent topologies for (a–c) 30%, (d–f) 40% and (g–i) 50% for calcified, cellular, and hypocellular plaque types, respectively (results of axial-stent-half unwrapped from cylindrical shape for illustration purpose)

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Fig. 10

Final lumen radial deformation with a generic stent (a–c) and optimized stents (d–f) for 30, 40 and 50% stenotic arteries, respectively, with different plaque types based on 11 equally distant points longitudinally along thickest part of plaque, relative to central axis (one half of the stenotic artery deformations illustrated)

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Fig. 11

Postimplantation stenosis levels (calculated by lesion cross-sectional area) in the remodeled artery due to optimized and generic stents recoil

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