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Research Papers

Development of Aspiration-Assisted End-Cut Coaxial Biopsy Needles

[+] Author and Article Information
Pei-Ying Wu

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
226 MAE-B,
Gainesville, FL 32611
e-mail: peiyingwu@ufl.edu

Hamit Kahraman

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
226 MAE-B,
Gainesville, FL 32611
e-mail: h.khrmn.89@gmail.com

Hitomi Yamaguchi

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
226 MAE-B,
Gainesville, FL 32611
e-mail: hitomiy@ufl.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received July 25, 2016; final manuscript received December 17, 2016; published online January 25, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Carl Nelson.

J. Med. Devices 11(1), 011012 (Jan 25, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: MED-16-1277; doi: 10.1115/1.4035688 History: Received July 25, 2016; Revised December 17, 2016

Needle biopsy procedures, such as fine-needle aspiration and core needle biopsy, are used to extract tissue samples for diagnosis, and collection of larger samples allows for more accurate diagnosis of cancers. The combination of lower needle insertion force, less needle deflection, and reduced friction between the tissue and needle surface also leads to a more efficient biopsy procedure. In this research, a new end-cut-type coaxial needle with a modified aspiration mechanism has been developed to extract large tissue with minimal damage. The study shows that the clearance between the inner stylette and external needle and the insertion speed are the key factors affecting the biopsy performance including syringe friction force and amount of tissue extracted. Larger tissue samples (gelatin and chicken breast are used as samples here) can be obtained when inserting at lower speeds and using coaxial needles with smaller clearances between the external needles and inner stylettes. For solid samples (gelatin), the space inside the external needle is nearly filled with the solid sample. For samples consisting of both solid (chicken meat) and liquid components, a slower needle insertion results in extraction of more liquid than solid. To extract larger solid samples, high-speed needle insertion is required. This paper presents the design and manufacture of the system, protocol to evaluate the needle biopsy, and evaluation of the needle biopsy performance using gelatin and chicken breast as tissue samples.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of an aspiration-assisted end-cut coaxial needle biopsy system: (a) coaxial needle is inserted in tissue, (b) external needle moves forward and cuts tissue, (c) external needle stops then a block is placed to hold tissue, and (d) coaxial needle is removed with extracted sample from tissue

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Fig. 2

Photograph of coaxial biopsy needle

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Fig. 3

Photograph of coaxial needle biopsy system

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Fig. 4

Photographs of tissue phantom samples: (a) sample without head structure and (b) sample with head structure

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Fig. 5

Relationships between inner stylette diameter and the sample length and weight: (a) changes in sample length with inner stylette diameter and (b) changes in sample weight with inner stylette diameter

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Fig. 6

Photographs of syringe barrel modification to eliminate aspiration assistance

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Fig. 7

Photographs of tissue samples collected with coaxial needle with holes: (a) defects in sample and (b) sample length L

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Fig. 8

Relationships between nonzero-biopsy rate and inner stylette diameter without aspiration assistance

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Fig. 9

Relationships between sample length and weight with inner stylette diameter without aspiration assistance: (a) changes in sample length with inner stylette diameter and (b) changes in sample weight with inner stylette diameter

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Fig. 10

Schematic of force components

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Fig. 11

Representative force profiles with time

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Fig. 12

Changes in plunger friction force with insertion speed

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Fig. 13

Changes in syringe friction force with inner stylette diameter

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Fig. 14

Changes in needle friction force with inner stylette diameter

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Fig. 15

Force Ft − Fs and tissue phantom after biopsy tests with sample extracted using no stylette: (a) changes in force Ft − Fs with inner stylette diameter and (b) phantom (left) and sample extracted using no stylette (right)

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Fig. 16

System modified for chicken breast biopsy

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Fig. 17

Chicken breast biopsy test results: (a) representative chicken meat samples and (b) changes in total sample weight with insertion speed

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Fig. 18

Changes in force Ft − Fs with needle insertion speed

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