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Research Papers

RFID-Based Real-Time Navigation for Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Development and Evaluation of a Novel Tracking System

[+] Author and Article Information
Felix Güttler

Department of Radiology,
University Hospital Jena,
Am Klinikum 1,
Jena 07747, Germany
e-mail: felix.guettler@med.uni-jena.de

Andreas Heinrich

Department of Radiology,
University Hospital Jena,
Am Klinikum 1,
Jena 07747, Germany
e-mail: andreas.heinrich@med.uni-jena.de

Peter Krauß

Department of Radiology,
Charité University Hospital,
Charitépl. 1, Berlin 10117, Germany

Jonathan Guntermann

Department of Radiology,
Charité University Hospital,
Charitépl. 1,
Berlin 10117, Germany

Maximilian de Bucourt

Department of Radiology,
Charité University Hospital,
Charitépl. 1,
Berlin 10117, Germany
e-mail: Maximilian.De-Bucourt@charite.de

Ulf Teichgräber

Department of Radiology,
University Hospital Jena,
Am Klinikum 1,
Jena 07747, Germany
e-mail: Ulf.teichgraeber@med.uni-jena.de

Manuscript received August 24, 2016; final manuscript received March 13, 2017; published online June 27, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Michael Eggen.

J. Med. Devices 11(3), 031007 (Jun 27, 2017) (5 pages) Paper No: MED-16-1308; doi: 10.1115/1.4036337 History: Received August 24, 2016; Revised March 13, 2017

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a novel radio-frequency identification (RFID)-based tracking system for intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A RFID tracking system was modified to fulfill MRI-compatibility and tested according to ASTM and NEMA. The influence of the RFID tracking system on MRI was analyzed in a phantom study using a half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbospin echo (HASTE) and true fast imaging with steady-state precession sequence (TrueFISP) sequence. The RFID antenna was gradually moved closer to the isocenter of the MR scanner from 90 to 210 cm to investigate the influence of the distance. Furthermore, the RF was gradually changed between 865 and 869 MHz for a distance of 90 cm, 150 cm, and 210 cm to the isocenter of the magnet to investigate the influence of the frequency. The specific spatial resolution was measured with and without a permanent line of sight (LOS). After the modification of the reader, no significant change of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) could be observed with increasing distance of the RFID tracking system to the isocenter of the MR scanner. Also, different radio frequencies of the RFID tracking system did not influence the SNR of the MR-images significantly. The specific spatial resolution deviated on average by 8.97 ± 7.33 mm with LOS and 11.23 ± 12.03 mm without LOS from the reference system. The RFID tracking system had no relevant influence on the MR-image quality. RFID tracking solved the LOS problem. However, the spatial accuracy of the RFID tracking system has to be improved for medical usage.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Experimental setup from right to left: signal processor (SP) and OFC in the anteroom, copper box with a self-made MR-compatible optical fiber converter (MR OFC) and RFID hardware outside of the 20 mT line in the scanner room, as well as, RFID antenna and MR scanner (MRI). An optical fiber connects the MR OFC and the OFC. In the magnet room all RFID components, except the antenna, were shielded with copper.

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Fig. 2

SNR before modification (a) and (d), after modification (b) and (e) and reference measurement (c) and (f) for a HASTE- (a)–(c) and TrueFISP-sequence (d)–(f)

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Fig. 3

MR-images of a turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence (TR 3500 ms, TE 88 ms, NSA 2, ETL 17, 11 slices, TA 234 s) with active RFID tracking system during MR-image acquisition. The influence of the RFID tracking system on the image quality before (left) and after (right) modification is shown.

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Fig. 4

The percentage differences between RFID tracking system and reference measurement (without RFID tracking system) for varying distances of the antenna from the isocenter of the MR scanner are shown

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Fig. 5

The percentage differences between RFID tracking system and reference measurement (without RFID tracking system) for varying frequencies of RFID tracking system with 90 cm distance from the isocenter of the MR scanner are shown

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Fig. 6

The differences between an RFID and optical tracking system with and without LOS are shown

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Fig. 7

Comparison between optical marker (above) and RFID marker (below) is shown. The optical marker needs an optimal alignment of the reflection bullets; in contrast, the RFID marker can be flexibly attached to the instrument in any orientation.

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