Technical Brief

Cardiovascular Catheter With an Expandable Origami Structure

[+] Author and Article Information
Austin J. Taylor, Yue Chen, Mable Fok

Department of Engineering,
The University of Georgia,
Athens, GA 30602

Adam Berman

Department of Medicine,
Augusta University,
Augusta, GA 30912

Kent Nilsson

Athens Regional Medical Center,
Augusta University–University of Georgia Medical Partnership,
Athens, GA 30606

Zion Tsz Ho Tse

Department of Engineering,
The University of Georgia,
Athens, GA 30602
e-mail: ziontse@uga.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 9, 2016; final manuscript received March 27, 2017; published online June 27, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Michael Eggen.

J. Med. Devices 11(3), 034505 (Jun 27, 2017) (6 pages) Paper No: MED-16-1316; doi: 10.1115/1.4036581 History: Received September 09, 2016; Revised March 27, 2017

Interventional catheter ablation treatment is a noninvasive approach for normalizing heart rhythm in patients with arrhythmia. Catheter ablation can be assisted with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to provide high-contrast images of the heart vasculature for diagnostic and intraprocedural purposes. Typical MRI images are captured using surface imaging coils that are external to the tissue being imaged. The image quality and the scanning time required for producing an image are directly correlated to the distance between the tissue being imaged and the imaging coil. The objective of this work is to minimize the spatial distance between the target tissue and the imaging coil by placing the imaging coil directly inside the heart using an expandable origami catheter structure. In this study, geometrical analysis is utilized to optimize the size and shape of the origami structure and MRI scans are taken to confirm the MRI compatibility of the structure. The origami expandable mechanism could also be applied to other medical device designs that require expandable structures.

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Fig. 1

Origami structure expanded at (a) 0%, (b) 30%, (c) 70%, and (d) 100%

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Fig. 2

(a) MR image showing the aortic arch with the stowed origami structure overlaid. (b) MR images highlighting the area constraints of the origami structure. The large oval highlights the area of the left atrium, where the catheter will be expanded, and the small oval highlights the area of the femoral artery, where the catheter will be stowed.

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Fig. 3

Origami structure containing imaging coils. (a) One coil, (b) two coils, (c) four coils, and (d) eight coils.

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Fig. 4

(a) Circuit diagram of the tuning–matching circuit. The circuit was tuned based on a single-coil topology to prove the concept of the origami structure incorporated with imaging electronics. (b) Network analysis displaying the reflection efficiency of the coil resonance frequency tuned to 128 MHz for 3T Larmor frequency.

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Fig. 5

Plots displaying (a) stowed height, (b) stowed area, and (c) expanded surface area against expanded diameter and the number of folds contained across the width of the structure

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Fig. 6

Instructions for folding expandable origami structure: Step 1: Cut out a circular sheet of paper. Step 2: Fold the four horizontal valley (HV) folds and the three horizontal mountain (HM) folds. Step 3: With the same sheet of paper and in the same orientation, fold the four vertical mountain (VM) folds and the three vertical valley (VV) folds. Step 4: Fold VM3 to VM2. Step 5: Fold HM2 down to HM3. Step 6: Turn over to bottom side. Step 7: Fold top half of back vertical mountain 2 (BVM2) to back vertical mountain 3 (BVM3). Step 8: Turn over to top side and pull left and right halves of HM2 apart until top layers separate from underlying layer. Step 9: Fold right half of HM2 to HM1. This should form a central square under the first layer of folds (illustrated in yellow box). Step 10: Fold HM2 to VM3 and fold HM3 and VM4 together between them, forming the diagonal bottom right (DBR) fold. Step 11: Fold HM2 to VM2 and fold HM1 and VM1 together between them, forming the diagonal top left (DTL) fold. Step 12: Turn over. Step 13: Fold back horizontal mountain 2 (BHM2) to BVM2 and fold BHM1 and BVM1 together between them, forming BDTL. Step 14: Fold BHM3 to BVM2 and fold BHM4 and BVM3 together between them, forming BDBR. Step 15: Push the outside corners together and keep orientation of previous folds. Step 16: Continue pushing corners together until top and bottom edges come together.

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Fig. 7

Results from SNR reduction experiment. Image sequence parameters: TSE—repetition time (TR)/3600 ms, echo time (TE)/120 ms, flip angle/180 deg, number of slice/5 mm, spacing/5 mm, resolution/256 × 256, field of view (FOV)/300 mm, and band width/130 Hz/px; True FISP—TR/22 ms, TE/10 ms, flip angle/30 deg, number of slice/5 mm, spacing/5 mm, resolution/256 × 256, field of view (FOV)/300 mm, and band width/130 Hz/px.



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