0
Research Papers

Preliminary Design and Testing of a Cavo-Arterial Pump Utilizing Axial Magnetic Couplings

[+] Author and Article Information
John Valdovinos

Department of Electrical and
Computer Engineering,
California State University Northridge,
18111 Nordhoff Street,
Northridge, CA 91330
e-mail: john.valdovinos@csun.edu

J. Chris Bouwmeester

Institute of Biomaterials and
Biomedical Engineering,
University of Toronto,
170 College Street,
Toronto, ON M5S 3E3, Canada
e-mail: chris.bouwmeester@utoronto.ca

Pramod Bonde

Center for Advanced Heart
Failure and Transplantation,
Yale School of Medicine,
330 Cedar Street, 204 Boardman,
New Haven, CT 06520
e-mail: pramod.bonde@yale.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received May 18, 2017; final manuscript received October 5, 2017; published online November 9, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Michael Eggen.

J. Med. Devices 12(1), 011001 (Nov 09, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: MED-17-1228; doi: 10.1115/1.4038221 History: Received May 18, 2017; Revised October 05, 2017

Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction has limited the effectiveness of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) therapy in some heart failure (HF) patients. Intravascular pumps can provide adequate circulatory support without the need for extensive operations. The development of an intravascular right ventricular assist device (RVAD), called the cavo-arterial pump (CAP), is presented. Two prototypes of the CAP were developed to demonstrate the feasibility of providing adequate pulmonary support and to demonstrate the feasibility of using axial magnetic couplings for contactless torque transmission from the motor shaft to the pump impeller. The CAP utilizing a direct drive mechanism produced a maximum pressure of 100 mm Hg and a maximum flow of 2.25 L/min when operated at 24 kRPM. When a magnetic drive mechanism was used, the overall flowrate decreased due to a loss in torque transmission. The magnetic drive CAP was able to operate up to 18.5 kRPM and produce a maximum flowrate of 1.35 L/min and a maximum pressure difference of 40 mm Hg. These results demonstrate that the CAP produces sufficient output for partial circulatory support of the pulmonary circulation, and that axial magnetic couplings can help to eliminate the sealing system needed to isolate the miniature motor and bearings from blood contact.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Dang, N. C. , Topkara, V. K. , Mercando, M. , Kay, J. , Kruger, K. H. , Aboodi, M. S. , Oz, M. C. , and Naka, Y. , 2006, “ Right Heart Failure After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation in Patients With Chronic Congestive Heart Failure,” J. Heart Lung Transplant., 25(1), pp. 1–6. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Patel, N. D. , Weiss, E. S. , Schaffer, J. , Ullrich, S. L. , Rivard, D. C. , Shah, A. S. , Russell, S. D. , and Conte, J. V. , 2008, “ Right Heart Dysfunction After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation: A Comparison of the Pulsatile HeartMate I and Axial-Flow HeartMate II Devices,” Ann. Thorac. Surg., 86(3), pp. 832–840; discussion 832–840. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bernhardt, A. M. , De By, T. M. , Reichenspurner, H. , and Deuse, T. , 2015, “ Isolated Permanent Right Ventricular Assist Device Implantation With the HeartWare Continuous-Flow Ventricular Assist Device: First Results From the European Registry for Patients With Mechanical Circulatory Support,” Eur. J. Cardiothorac. Surg., 48(1), pp. 158–162. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Potapov, E. , Schweiger, M. , Vierecke, J. , Dandel, M. , Stepanenko, A. , Kukucka, M. , Jurmann, B. , Hetzer, R. , and Krabatsch, T. , 2012, “ Discontinuation of HeartWare RVAD Support Without Device Removal in Chronic BIVAD Patients,” ASAIO J., 58(1), pp. 15–18. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Stretch, R. , Sauer, C. M. , Yuh, D. D. , and Bonde, P. , 2014, “ National Trends in the Utilization of Short-Term Mechanical Circulatory Support: Incidence, Outcomes, and Cost Analysis,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 64(14), pp. 1407–1415. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kapur, N. K. , Paruchuri, V. , Korabathina, R. , Al-Mohammdi, R. , Mudd, J. O. , Prutkin, J. , Esposito, M. , Shah, A. , Kiernan, M. S. , and Sech, C. , 2011, “ Effects of a Percutaneous Mechanical Circulatory Support Device for Medically Refractory Right Ventricular Failure,” J. Heart Lung Transplant., 30(12), pp. 1360–1367. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Cheung, A. W. , White, C. W. , Davis, M. K. , and Freed, D. H. , 2014, “ Short-Term Mechanical Circulatory Support for Recovery From Acute Right Ventricular Failure: Clinical Outcomes,” J. Heart Lung Transplant., 33(8), pp. 794–799. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Punnoose, L. , Burkhoff, D. , Rich, S. , and Horn, E. M. , 2012, “ Right Ventricular Assist Device in End-Stage Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Insights From a Computational Model of the Cardiovascular System,” Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis., 55(2), pp. 234–243.e232. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Butler, K. C. , Moise, J. C. , and Wampler, R. K. , 1990, “ The Hemopump—A New Cardiac Prothesis Device,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 37(2), pp. 193–196. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rosarius, N. , Siess, T. , Reul, H. , and Rau, G. , 1994, “ Concept, Realization, and First In Vitro Testing of an Intraarterial Microaxial Blood Pump With an Integrated Drive Unit,” Artif. Organs, 18(7), pp. 512–516. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Siess, T. , Nix, C. , and Menzler, F. , 2001, “ From a Lab Type to a Product: A Retrospective View on Impella's Assist Technology,” Artif. Organs, 25(5), pp. 414–421. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Stepanoff, A. J. , 1957, Centrifugal and Axial Flow Pumps: Theory, Design, and Application, Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, FL.
Reul, H. , 1994, “ Technical Requirements and Limitations of Miniaturized Axial Flow Pumps for Circulatory Support,” Cardiology, 84(3), pp. 187–193. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Clifton, W. , Benavides, O. , Songkakul, T. , Heuring, J. , Hertzog, B. , and Delgado, R. , 2015, “ Feasibility of a Long-Term Transfemoral Power Lead for Aortix, a Novel Intravascular Blood Pump,” J. Heart Lung Transplant., 34(4), p. S177. [CrossRef]
Waters, B. H. , Smith, J. R. , and Bonde, P. , 2014, “ Innovative Free-Range Resonant Electrical Energy Delivery System (FREE-D System) for a Ventricular Assist Device Using Wireless Power,” ASAIO J., 60(1), pp. 31–37. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Vision of the CAP for partial circulatory support to the pulmonary circulation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) Exploded view of the direct drive CAP and (b) exploded view of the experimental prototype to test the magnetic couplings

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Finite element model for calculating the maximum torque transfer from the drive magnet to a following magnet separated by an air gap

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic of the experimental setup for the (a) direct drive CAP, (b) magnetically driven CAP, and (c) a photograph of experimental setup testing the magnetically driven CAP (all components are submerged in an acrylic tank)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Calculated torque values at various offset angles for two magnetic couplings used in the CAP design

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

(a) Experimental motor speed versus impeller speed for the CAP utilizing magnetic couplings with water as the working fluid and (b) with blood analog (60% water and 40% glycerol) as the working fluid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

(a) Experimental flowrate as a function of motor shaft speed for the CAP utilizing magnetic couplings with water as the working fluid (b) with blood analog (60% water and 40% glycerol) as the working fluid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Experimental pressure–flow performance curves for the directly driven CAP and (b) the magnetically driven CAP with blood analog (60% water and 40% glycerol) as the working fluid

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In