Technical Brief

Integrating Cadaver Needle Forces Into a Haptic Robotic Simulator

[+] Author and Article Information
David F. Pepley

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802

Mary A. Yovanoff

Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802

Katelin A. Mirkin, David C. Han

Department of Surgery,
Hershey Medical Center,
The Pennsylvania State University,
Hershey, PA 17033

Scarlett R. Miller

Department of Engineering Design and Industrial
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802

Jason Z. Moore

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: jzm14@psu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 11, 2017; final manuscript received November 9, 2017; published online December 5, 2017. Editor: William Durfee.

J. Med. Devices 12(1), 014501 (Dec 05, 2017) (5 pages) Paper No: MED-17-1305; doi: 10.1115/1.4038562 History: Received September 11, 2017; Revised November 09, 2017

Accurate force simulation is essential to haptic simulators for surgical training. Factors such as tissue inhomogeneity pose unique challenges for simulating needle forces. To aid in the development of haptic needle insertion simulators, a handheld force sensing syringe was created to measure the motion and forces of needle insertions. Five needle insertions were performed into the neck of a cadaver using the force sensing syringe. Based on these measurements a piecewise exponential needle force characterization, was implemented into a haptic central venous catheterization (CVC) simulator. The haptic simulator was evaluated through a survey of expert surgeons, fellows, and residents. The maximum needle insertion forces measured ranged from 2.02 N to 1.20 N. With this information, four characterizations were created representing average, muscular, obese, and thin patients. The median survey results showed that users statistically agreed that “the robotic system made me sensitive to how patient anatomy impacts the force required to advance needles in the human body.” The force sensing syringe captured force and position information. The information gained from this syringe was able to be implemented into a haptic simulator for CVC insertions, showing its utility. Survey results showed that experts, fellows, and residents had an overall positive outlook on the haptic simulator's ability to teach haptic skills.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Topics: Haptics , Robotics , needles
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Fig. 1

CVC haptic training simulator

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Fig. 2

Example of measured axial needle insertion force into bovine liver

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Fig. 3

Needle insertion force sensing syringe

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Fig. 4

Expert CVC needle insertion force on a fresh frozen unembalmed cadaver

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Fig. 5

Needle insertion force during a steady insertion into the apex of the sternal head and clavicle of the cadaver

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Fig. 6

Needle insertion force during a steady insertion into the sternocleidomastoid of a fresh frozen unembalmed cadaver

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Fig. 7

Four force characterizations designed for use in the virtual reality haptic robotic CVC simulator. Maximum needle forces for the five cadaver insertions are shown. Pn intervals are denoted by vertical lines.



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