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research-article

Custom-fit 3D-printed BiPAP mask to improve compliance in patients requiring long-term noninvasive ventilatory support

[+] Author and Article Information
Ying Ying Wu

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
yingyinw@alumni.cmu.edu

Deepshikha Acharya

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
dacharya@andrew.cmu.edu

Camilla Xu

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
qinx@andrew.cmu.edu

Boyle C. Cheng

Neuroscience Institute, Allegheny General Hospital, 320 E North Ave, Pittsburgh, PA
bcheng@wpahs.org

Sandeep Rana

Department of Neurology, Allegheny General Hospital, 320 E North Ave, Pittsburgh, PA
sandeep.rana@ahn.org

Kenji Shimada

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
shimada@cmu.edu

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4040187 History: Received November 10, 2017; Revised April 17, 2018

Abstract

Noninvasive ventilator support using BiPAP/CPAP is commonly utilized for chronic medical conditions like sleep apnea and neuromuscular disorders like ALS that lead to weakness of respiratory muscles. Generic masks come in standard sizes and are often perceived by patients as being uncomfortable, ill-fitting and leaky. A significant number of patients are unable to tolerate the masks and eventually stop using their devices. The goal of this project is to develop custom-fit masks to increase comfort, decrease air leakage and thereby improve patient compliance. A single patient case study of a patient with variant ALS was performed to evaluate the custom-fit masks. His high nose bridge and overbite of lower jaw caused poor fit with generic masks, and he was noncompliant with his machine. Using desktop Stereolithography 3D printing and MRI data, a generic mask was extended with a rigid interface such that it was complementary to the patient's unique facial contours. Patient or clinicians interactively select a desired mask shape using a newly developed computer program. Subsequently, a compliant silicone layer was applied to the rigid interface. Ten different custom-fit mask designs were made using computer-aided design software. Patient evaluated the comfort, extent of leakage, and satisfaction of each mask via a questionnaire. All custom-fit masks were rated higher than the standard mask except for two. Our results suggest that modifying generic masks with a 3D-printed custom-fit interface is a promising strategy to improve compliance with BiPAP/CPAP machines.

Copyright (c) 2018 by ASME
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