Design Innovation Paper

Real-Time Mechanical-Encoding of Needle Shape for Image-Guided Medical and Surgical Interventions

[+] Author and Article Information
Mohamad Abbass

Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry,
Western University,
London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
e-mail: mabbass2018@meds.uwo.ca

Stacy Fan

Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry,
Western University,
London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
e-mail: sfan2018@meds.uwo.ca

Kevin Barker

Imaging Research Laboratories,
Robarts Research Institute,
Western University,
London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
e-mail:  kbarker@robarts.ca

Aaron Fenster

Robarts Research Institute,
Imaging Research Laboratories,
Western University,
London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
e-mail: afenster@robarts.ca

Jeremy Cepek

Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry,
Western University,
London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
e-mail: jcepek2018@meds.uwo.ca

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received August 25, 2017; final manuscript received August 12, 2018; published online November 5, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Carl Nelson.

J. Med. Devices 13(1), 015001 (Nov 05, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: MED-17-1292; doi: 10.1115/1.4041335 History: Received August 25, 2017; Revised August 12, 2018

Error and uncertainty in needle placement can drastically impact the clinical outcome of both diagnostic and therapeutic needle-based procedures. In this work, we aim to estimate the shape of a bent needle during insertion and provide a prototype design of a needle whose deflection is tracked in real time. We calculate slope along a needle by measuring the movement of fixed wires running along its length with a compact image-based sensor. Through the use of the Euler–Bernoulli beam theory, we calculate shape and trajectory of a needle. We constructed a prototype needle with two wires fixed along its length and measured wire-movement using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) mouse sensor. This method was able to estimate needle tip deflection within 1 mm in a variety of deflection scenarios in real time. We then provide a design of a needle with real-time deflection tracking in 3D, providing the user with a simple display to convey needle deflection in tissue. This method could be applied to needle-based biopsy or therapy procedures to improve the diagnostic accuracy or treatment delivery quality.

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Fig. 1

Illustration of the concept of measuring needle slope by measuring the movement of a wire: (a) the wire is fixed at a point a distance of s from the needle's base and (b) deflection of the needle will cause movement of the wire relative to the needle's base equal to δw, which is proportional to the slope of the needle at the point where the wire is fixed

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Fig. 2

Discretized force distribution on a needle inserted into soft tissue

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Fig. 3

Flowchart summarizing the steps required to arrive at an estimate of a needle's shape using n measurements of slope along its length via the measurement of wire movement

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Fig. 4

Design of the custom sensor for measuring wire movement: (a) side view shows the sensing strips attached to the sensing wires in the field-of-view of the mouse sensor, and (b) top view shows the sensing wire attached to the tip of the needle and actuating the sensing strip; the inscribed sensing strip appears as a bright region with a dark vertical line running perpendicular to the wire movement direction

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Fig. 5

Force distribution model for the prototype needle with two sensors

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Fig. 6

Images acquired using the VCSEL mouse sensor for measurement of wire movement: (a) baseline image acquired with the needle in an unbent state; the dashed rectangles are regions only containing pixels from the sensing strips, (b) image acquired with the needle bent; the solid rectangles represent the subregions of the image to be registered to the baseline image; the broken white line indicates the original position of the inscribed lines, which have moved toward the left of the image, and (c) registration of the subregions in (b) provides a direct measure of the movement of each sensing wire, d1 and d2

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Fig. 7

Test apparatus for measuring the accuracy of estimated needle deflection. The setup allows the needle tip to be deflected by a measured amount, the needle depth to be varied by a measured amount, and for a point along the needle's length to be deflected by a measured amount.

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Fig. 8

(a) Error in estimated tip deflection in the case of a concentrated force acting on the needle tip; (b) error in estimated tip deflection at insertion depths of (iii) 145 mm and (iv) 85 mm (c) error in estimated tip deflection for the cases of (v) tip deflection by a concentrated load, and (vi) combined loading by concentrated forces at both the needle tip and at a point midway along its length

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Fig. 9

Prototype instrumented needle. The pair of wires attached at s0 measures the amount of bending of the uninserted portion of the needle due to the weight of the handle or movement by the operator as long as s0 remains within the needle guide. Wires at s1 and s2 provide an estimate of the needle's shape using a two degree-of-freedom model of the force distribution.

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Fig. 10

Arrangement of the sensing wires along the length of the needle shaft. At each sensing location s0s2, two sensing wires are fixed, offset by 90 deg. This arrangement provides independent measurement of each orthogonal component of needle deflection.

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Fig. 11

General force distribution on a needle inserted into soft tissue

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Fig. 12

Example of a needle tip deflection display on the base of the needle handle that would permit closed-loop manual control of needle trajectory. In the example shown above, the illuminated light indicates that the needle deflection is 2 mm upwards, requiring the user to steer the needle downwards upon further insertion.



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