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research-article

Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Mechanical Cavopulmonary Assistance

[+] Author and Article Information
Steven Chopski

School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems, Drexel University, Bossone Research Enterprise Center, 3141 Chestnut Street, Rm. 718 Philadelphia, PA 19104
Steven.Chopski@drexel.edu

Kevin Whitehead

Kevin Whitehead, M.D, Ph.D. Division of Cardiology and Department of Radiology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3401 Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104
whiteheadk@email.chop.edu

George Englehardt

Division of Cardiology and Department of Radiology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3401 Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104
englehardtg@email.chop.edu

Amy Throckmorton

School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems, Drexel University, Bossone Research Enterprise Center, 3141 Chestnut Street, Rm. 718 Philadelphia, PA 19104
amy.throckmorton@drexel.edu

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4041414 History: Received June 13, 2017; Revised June 15, 2018

Abstract

Mechanical circulatory support options are limited for patients with dysfunctional single ventricle physiology. To address this unmet clinical need, we are developing an axial-flow blood pump to provide mechanical assistance to the cavopulmonary circulation. In this study, we investigate the use of high-resolution cardiac MRI to visualize the complex fluid flow conditions of mechanical circulatory assist in two patient-specific Fontan anatomies. A 3-bladed axial-flow impeller coupled to a supportive cage with a 4-bladed diffuser was positioned in the inferior vena cava of each Fontan anatomy. CMR imaging and power efficiency studies were conducted at physiologic relevant parameters with cardiac output of 2, 3, and 4 L/min with impeller rotational speeds of 2000 and 4000 RPM. The axial-flow impeller was able to generate improved flow in the total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). The higher rotational speed was able to redistribute flow in the TCPC anastomosis aiding in removing stagnant blood. No retrograde flow was observed or measured in the superior vena cava. As an extension of the CMR data, a scalar stress analysis was performed on both models and found a maximum scalar stress of approximately 42 Pascal for both patient anatomies. The power efficiency experiments demonstrated a maximum energy gain of 8.6 mW for TCPC Anatomy 1 and 12.58 mW for TCPC Anatomy 2 for a flow rate of 4 L/min and at 4000 RPM. These findings support the continued the development of axial blood pumps for mechanical cavopulmonary assist.

Copyright (c) 2018 by ASME
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