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Editorial

J. Med. Devices. 2014;8(3):030201-030201-1. doi:10.1115/1.4027842.

The following technical briefs were submitted, peer reviewed, and accepted for presentation at the 2014 University of Minnesota's Design of Medical Devices (DMD) Conference (www.dmd.umn.edu) held Apr. 7–10, 2014 at The Commons Hotel and McNamara Alumni Center in Minneapolis, Minneapolis, MN. The conference had another successful year with attendance reaching over 1,100 and raised $139,000 from 41 sponsors. The money raised will support medical devices education at the University of Minnesota, the University of Minnesota Medical Devices Center, and the DMD Conference expenses.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Technical Brief

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Med. Devices. 2014;8(3):030903-030903-2. doi:10.1115/1.4027085.
Topics: Medical devices
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Med. Devices. 2014;8(3):030907-030907-2. doi:10.1115/1.4027101.
Topics: Wire , Design , stents
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Med. Devices. 2014;8(3):030909-030909-2. doi:10.1115/1.4027103.
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Med. Devices. 2014;8(3):030910-030910-2. doi:10.1115/1.4027104.
Topics: Pressure , Design
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Med. Devices. 2014;8(3):030920-030920-2. doi:10.1115/1.4027041.
Topics: Actuators , Robotics , Surgery
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Med. Devices. 2014;8(3):030922-030922-2. doi:10.1115/1.4027043.
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Med. Devices. 2014;8(3):030936-030936-2. doi:10.1115/1.4027081.
Topics: Surgery
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Med. Devices. 2014;8(3):030941-030941-2. doi:10.1115/1.4027109.
Topics: Robots
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Med. Devices. 2014;8(3):030945-030945-2. doi:10.1115/1.4027113.
Topics: Robots
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Med. Devices. 2014;8(3):030948-030948-2. doi:10.1115/1.4027115.
Topics: Health care , Sensors
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Med. Devices. 2014;8(3):030950-030950-2. doi:10.1115/1.4027117.
Topics: Design , Feedback , Sensors
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Med. Devices. 2014;8(3):030954-030954-2. doi:10.1115/1.4027122.
Topics: Sensors , Shapes
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Med. Devices. 2014;8(3):030955-030955-2. doi:10.1115/1.4027123.
Topics: Design
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Med. Devices. 2014;8(3):034558-034558-4. doi:10.1115/1.4026828.

The purpose of this study was to utilize controllable fiber-drawing techniques in order to fabricate glass microcone arrays for use in office-based optical surgery instruments. The cone spacing is controlled via the drawing process while an etching process controls the cone height-to-base ratio. The device viability was tested by imprinting, and subsequent staining, of low-density polyethylene and porcine corneas, resulting in a consistent patterned structure of micron-sized perforations. After imprint, the device was examined and no evidence of microcone fracture or overpenetration was present during the course of these experiments. This research promises to lead to advances in optical surgery for the treatment of recurrent corneal erosions, providing quicker, safer, and more cost-effective procedures with decreased risk of vision loss and scarring associated with current procedures such as anterior stromal puncture. The ease of procedure and micron-sized incisions could potentially replace current techniques and provide a viable treatment alternative for recurrent corneal erosions in the visual axis.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Med. Devices. 2014;8(3):034559-034559-6. doi:10.1115/1.4027796.

Clinical rehabilitation of individuals with various neurological disorders requires a significant number of movement repetitions in order to improve coordination and restoration of appropriate muscle activation patterns. Arm reaching movement is frequently practiced via motorized arm cycling ergometers where the trajectory of movement is circular thus providing means for practicing a single and rather nonfunctional set of muscle activation patterns, which is a significant limitation. We have developed a novel mechanism that in the combination with an existing arm ergometer device enables nine different movement modalities/trajectories ranging from purely circular trajectory to four elliptical and four linear trajectories where the direction of movement may be varied. The main objective of this study was to test a hypothesis stating that different movement modalities facilitate differences in muscle activation patterns as a result of varying shape and direction of movement. Muscle activation patterns in all movement modalities were assessed in a group of neurologically intact individuals in the form of recording the electromyographic (EMG) activity of four selected muscle groups of the shoulder and the elbow. Statistical analysis of the root mean square (RMS) values of resulting EMG signals have shown that muscle activation patterns corresponding to each of the nine movement modalities significantly differ in order to accommodate to variation of the trajectories shape and direction. Further, we assessed muscle activation patterns following the same protocol in a selected clinical case of hemiparesis. These results have shown the ability of the selected case subject to produce different muscle activation patterns as a response to different movement modalities which show some resemblance to those assessed in the group of neurologically intact individuals. The results of the study indicate that the developed device may significantly extend the scope of strength and coordination training in stroke rehabilitation which is in current clinical rehabilitation practice done through arm cycling.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers

J. Med. Devices. 2014;8(3):031001-031001-12. doi:10.1115/1.4027247.

Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a very common ear disease occurring in adults and children alike when the middle ear is infected or the eustachian tube becomes dysfunctional, resulting in accumulation of fluid in the middle ear space. When medication as the first treatment fails, a grommet is commonly surgically inserted on the tympanic membrane (TM) of the patient to discharge the fluid. In this paper, a novel “all-in-one” device allowing office-based grommet insertion in an awake patient with OME is proposed, designed, fabricated, and tested. It utilizes a highly integrated structure encompassing key components of a mechanical system, a sensing system and a motion control system, all are synergized to enable the surgery to be completed in a short time automatically, precisely, effectively, and safely. The experimental results obtained with the device working on a mock membrane with characteristics representative of the TM are duly furnished, showing a success rate of up to 98%.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Med. Devices. 2014;8(3):031002-031002-11. doi:10.1115/1.4027841.

Because the leg is known to exhibit springlike behavior during the stance phase of running, several exoskeletons have attempted to place external springs in parallel with some or all of the leg during stance, but these designs have failed to permit natural kinematics during swing. To this end, a parallel-elastic exoskeleton is presented that introduces a clutch to disengage the parallel leg-spring and thereby not constrain swing-phase movements of the biological leg. A custom interference clutch with integrated planetary gear transmission, made necessary by the requirement for high holding torque but low mass, is presented and shown to withstand up to 190 N·m at 1.8 deg resolution with a mass of only 710 g. A suitable control strategy for locking the clutch at peak knee extension is also presented, where only an onboard rate gyroscope and exoskeletal joint encoder are employed as sensory inputs. Exoskeletal electromechanics, sensing, and control are shown to achieve design critieria necessary to emulate biological knee stiffness behaviors in running.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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