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Design Innovation Paper

A parallel multiple layer cryolithography device for the manufacture of biological material for tissue engineering

[+] Author and Article Information
Gideon Ukpai

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley CA 94720, USA; 6124 Etcheverry Hall, 2521 Hearst Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94709
gideon_ukpai@berkeley.edu

Joseph Sahyoun

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley CA 94720, USA
jsahyoun@berkeley.edu

Robert Stuart

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley CA 94720, USA
robert_stuart@berkeley.edu

Sky Wang

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley CA 94720, USA
skywang@berkeley.edu

Zichen Xiao

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley CA 94720, USA
zichen_xiao@berkeley.edu

Boris Rubinsky

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley CA 94720, USA; 6124 Etcheverry Hall, 2521 Hearst Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94709
rubinsky@berkeley.edu

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4043080 History: Received December 18, 2018; Revised February 24, 2019

Abstract

While 3-D printing of biological matter is of increasing interest, current linear 3-D printing processes lack the efficiency at scale required to mass manufacture products made of biological matter. This paper introduces a device for a newly developed parallel additive manufacturing technology for production of 3-D objects which addresses the need for faster, industrial scale additive manufacturing methods. The technology uses multilayer cryolithography (MLCL) to make biological products faster and in larger quantities by simultaneously printing 2-D layers in parallel and assembling the layers into a 3-D structure at an assembly site, instead of sequentially and linearly assembling a 3-D object from individual elements as in conventional 3-D printing. The technique uses freezing to bind the 2-D layers together into a 3-D object. This paper describes the basic principles of MLCL and demonstrates the technology with a new device used to manufacture a very simple product that could be used for tissue engineering, as an example. An evaluation of the interlayer bonding shows that a continuous and coherent structure can be made from the assembly of distinct layers using MLCL.

Copyright (c) 2019 by ASME
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